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清末臺灣新竹城隍廟的中元祭儀反映的社會動員與地方認同

Social Mobilization and the Formation of the Local Identity: The Sacrifice Rituals of the Temple of City God in Hsinchu of Taiwan in the Late Qing Dynasty

Abstracts


本文討論以中元祭儀為主要年度行事的新竹城隍廟,自19世紀中葉起成為地方重要政治象徵及活動場域的歷史。由新竹城隍廟祭儀之歷史來看,不難發現自建廟百餘年後的1850年代起,民眾參與增加及地方士紳藉以號召的痕跡。這一變化的社會脈絡,是在地方不安和戴潮春事件等影響下,地方重要士紳家族在地方武裝化的氛圍下用以動員的一種表現。但光是地方大事或經濟發展,並不足以解釋為何是城隍廟,而非其它受歡迎廟宇。地方社會至19世紀中期的發展,及重要士紳間建構影響力的方式,讓他們以新竹城隍在地方行政體系代表的正統性為訴求,也就是運用新竹本地社會發展脈絡,產生地方獨有的認同,並隨着此地政治與經濟地位在19世紀末日益邊緣化而愈發顯著。城隍廟中元祭儀發展的歷史,是清代國家符碼化影響地方社會長期以來形塑地方認同的一個例證。

Parallel abstracts


The Temple of City God in Hsinchu, famous for its annual rituals for ghost festival, since the 1850s experienced a transition from an official temple to a popular temple. The historical change in its rituals reflects active participation from the local people and gentry families in the context of the growth of the local economy, a rise of regional militarization, and a resulting phenomenon of social mobilization. Yet, the development did not occur with a gradual departure from state authority. Quite the contrary, the local elite continued to utilize the orthodoxy and official control that the City God could exert from old times to promote the City God as a symbol of Hsinchu to this date. The gradual marginalization of Hsinchu in its dwindling of the administrative sphere, and its decreasing political and economic significance overshadowed by Taipei in the last decades of the nineteenth century, led to the growth of a local identity exclusively to people of Hsinchu.

References


國立臺灣大學「臺灣歷史數位圖書館」(THDL)查詢《淡新檔案》中「城隍」之記錄,最早的是16404案第1件中在「城隍廟」邊一名佃人欠納租谷的記載,http://doi.org/10.6681/NTURCDH. DB_THDL/ntul-od-th16404_001. jpg
丁仁傑,〈譯者導言〉,載焦大衛 (David K. Jordan)著、丁仁傑譯,《神.鬼.祖先:一個臺灣鄉村的民間信仰》(臺北:聯經出版事業股份有限公司,2012),頁xix-lxvi
張珣,〈百年來臺灣漢人宗教研究的人類學回顧〉,載黃富三、古偉瀛、蔡採秀主編,《臺灣史研究一百年:回顧與研究》(臺北:中研院臺灣史研究所籌備處,1997),頁215-255
鄭志明,〈民國百年民間宗教與新興宗教研究回顧〉,《成大宗教與文化學報》,第18期(2012年7月),頁1-44。
Paul R. Katz,“Chapter 6 Identity Politics and the Study of Popular Religion In Postwar Taiwan, " in Religion and the Formation of Taiwanese Identities, eds. Paul R. Katz and Murray Rubinstein (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), 157,161-162.

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