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Theistic Ethics and The Euthyphro Dilemma


「道德的基礎是甚麼?」是極富爭議性的問題,其中一個答案是有神論倫理(theistic ethics),但這面對猶希佛兩難題(Euthyphro dilemma)的挑戰:「上帝之所以命令一件事,是因為它是善的,抑或它是因為被上帝命令,所以才成為善的?」無神論者認為無論如何回答,都顯示上帝不能成為道德的基礎。本文會對此重要批評作出回應,並評介四種當代宗教哲學家提出的解答:理性主義的有神論倫理;斯溫伯恩的雙重解決方案;亞當斯(Adams)的改良神諭倫理;和上帝本質全善論。我的結論是,猶希佛兩難題不單可解,更有多於一種的合理回答。


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The foundation of morality is a very controversial question. Theistic ethics, which grounds ethics in God, is one answer to this question. However, this solution faces the challenge of the Euthyphro dilemma: "Does God command something because it is good, or something is good because it is commanded by God?" The atheist critics think that no matter how you answer this question, the answer is so problematic that God can never be thought to be the foundation of morality. In this essay, I will evaluate the debate surrounding this Euthyphro dilemma. In particular, I will introduce & evaluate four solutions proposed to solve this dilemma: theistic ethics founded on rationalism; Swinburne's dual solution; Robert Adams' modified divine command ethics; and the thesis that God is essentially morally perfect. My conclusion is that the Euthyphro dilemma is not only solvable, but also that there exists more than one reasonable reply to this dilemma.

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