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靈魂存在嗎?從神學與哲學角度評二元論

Does the Soul Exist? The Evaluation of Dualism from Theological & Philosophical Perspectives

Abstracts


「靈魂是否存在?」是極富爭議性也對人觀極為重要的問題,基督教傳統相信二元論(dualism),但這面對當代世俗人觀和唯物論的嚴峻挑戰,甚至一些當代神學家(如格林)和基督徒哲學家(如梅菲)也提倡一種基督教的唯物論或物理主義(Christian materialism or physicalism)。本文對二元論和物理主義的當代辯論作出評論,我首先指出二元於從神學角度較有合理性,接着我從哲學角度維護二元論的初步合理性。我接着探討對二元論常見的批評,並作出回應。我的結論是:基督教應堅持一種整全的二元論。

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"Does the soul exist?" This is a very important but also a very controversial question. The Chrisitan tradition tends to believe in dualism, but it is now facing the serious challenge of a secular view of man, materialism in particular. In fact some contemporary theologians (e.g., Joel Green) & Christian philosophers (e.g., Nancey Murphy) propose a kind of Christian materialism or physicalism. This paper focuses on the debate between dualists & Christian physicalists. I will first point out the plausibility of dualism from the theological perspective. Then I defend the prima facie credibility of dualism. I go on to explore the common objections to dualism, & then reply to them. I conclude that Christians should endorse a kind of holistic dualism.

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