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環境實踐的“全球”與“在地”辯證:以法鼓山的“環保”論述爲例

The Dialectical Relationship between "Global" and "Local" Environmental Practices: A Case Study of Dharma Drum Mountain's "Huan-Bao" Discourse

Abstracts


本文從環境論述(environmental discourse)的分析角度,闡釋從1990年代以來在台灣發展迅速的佛教教團―法鼓山一系列環境行動的過程,並指出當前文獻中宗教―環境論述由於缺乏對宗教實踐背後具體社會脈絡的瞭解與掌握,因此看不到宗教徒環境實踐中「全球性」與「在地性」交互辯証的積極社會過程。另外,本文也企圖指出這個佛教教團的環境行動背後,反映了解嚴之後台灣社會變遷的過程以及當代台灣佛教發展的軌跡。 本文分為三個主要的部份:第一部份,討論環境意識型態與全球性的關聯,並且嘗試從分析國際的宗教―環境論述,來說明彼此之間的關係與問題所在;第二部分,說明本文環境論述分析的取向,主要乃沿用環境政治學者M. Hajer的「故事情節」與「論述結盟」的分析概念,其中特別強調論述的社會改革力量、隱喻性與異質性、以及論述主體的實踐性,來分析脈絡中的環境行動;第三部份,則以法鼓山在一九九○年代的「環保」實踐與論述作為實際的例子,進一步闡釋該論述與解嚴前後著重於社會政治批判的「環保」論述,在時空脈絡以及實踐內涵的不同,同時指出法鼓山的佛教「環保」論述表達了台灣佛教從找尋社會參與以及認同的現代化方向。這種實踐的方式不只是法師本身的領導魅力而已,更不可忽視的是整個台灣社會的需求以及信徒積極參與的態度。

Parallel abstracts


Based on environmental discourse analysis, this paper attempts to interpret a series of environmental practices carried out by Dharma Drum Mountain, a rapidly developing Buddhist organization in Taiwan since 1990s. It indicates that the organization's actions reflect a process of social-cultural transformation of Taiwan society since the lift of martial law in 1987 and Taiwanese Buddhist modernization as well. Besides, it shows that the dominant global environmental discourse towards religions tends to be stereotypical so that it cannot comprehend the dynamic process of religious people's participation in environmental issues in different social contexts. The paper is divided into three parts. Firstly, the paper reviews the relationship between environmental consciousness and globality, particularly taking global religious environmental issues as a case to highlight their constraints. Secondly, the methodology of environmental discourse analysis is briefly introduced. M. Hajer, an environmental politics scholar's analytical concepts: ”storylines” and ”discursive coalition” are employed. Based on his analytical framework, the power of social transformation, metaphoric and heterogeneous nature of discourse, and the practice of discourse subject are emphasized. Thirdly, Dharma Drum Mountain's (DDM) Huan-Bao discourse in 1990s is employed as a case study to illustrate different social meanings of environmental practices during the past 20 years. Furthermore, it is emphasized that DDM's environmental discourse is a social process of how Taiwanese Buddhists seek their collective social identities and practice their religious belief. It's worthy noting that the trend of religious practice is not only led by religious master, but also very much in line with lay Buddhists' positive attitudes and the demand from Taiwan society.

References


Attfield, R.(1983).The Ethics of Environmental Concern.Athens:University of Georgia Press.
Badiner, A. H.(1990).Dharma Gaia: A Harvest of Essays in Buddhism and Ecology.Berkeley, California:Parallax Press.
Beck, U.(1992).Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity.London:SAGE Publications.
Beyer, P.(1994).Religion and Globalization.London:Sage Publications.
Burgess, J., M. Limb,C. M. Harrison(1988).Exploring Environmental Values through the Medium of Small Groups: 1. Theory and Practice.Environment and Planning A.20,309-326.

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