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工作難度對學習平衡的影響

The Influence of Task Difficulties on Balance-task Learning

Abstracts


本研究的目的在檢驗不同工作難度對學習平衡工作中熱身減低效應的影響。12位體育系大學女生,以每週三天,每天20次,每一次30秒,進行為期一個月,在動態平衡儀(stabilometer)上維持平衡的練習,並以操弄雙腳在平衡板上的距離,分為寬(難)、窄(簡單)兩種,作為工作難度的區分,兩種情境每天各練10次。實驗前先進行前測,然後每隔兩週測驗一次,兩種情境在測驗時各實施一次,透過記錄平衡板於水平上下五度之間的秒數來代表平衡工作的表現,而練習過程中的熱身減低(warm-up decrement)現象則是以同一情境當天第一次試作的表現值減前一天最後一次試作的表現值來表示。結果發現:一、平衡時間顯著隨著練習而增加,窄情境(F(2,22)=65.282, p<0.5)、寬情境(F(2,22)=74.652,p<0.5)。二、整體來說,熱身減低的情況可由先進行類似但難度不同的工作而改善(F(1,11)=11.106,p<0.5)。三、只有寬情境的熱身減低有隨著練習而顯著的減少(t_(11)=6.265, p<.05)。四、在前兩週的練習時,先練習寬情境對窄情境表現的熱身效果顯著優於先練習窄情境對寬情境表現的作用(t_(11)=2.470, p<.05)。本研究發現:在平衡的工作中,寬腳的站立相較於窄腳而言確實屬於較困難的工作;從事簡單的工作之前先練習一個較難的工作,可以在學習的初期顯著減少休息可能帶來的熱身減低效應,而簡單工作能夠影響困難的工作的效果則不明顯,困難的工作主要是透過練習來增加平衡的技能以消除熱身減低的情形。若能在學習初期時利用這樣的原則,以一個較難的工作來從事熱身,消除了熱身減低的情形,應該對學習過程有所助益。

Keywords

工作限制 熱身減低

Parallel abstracts


This study examined the influence of task difficulties on learning a balance task through observing the warm-up decrement (WUD) phenomenon. Twelve female college students majoring in physical education vonlunteered in this study. All the participants practiced on the stabilometer twenty 30-second trials a day, 3 days per week for 4 weeks. The task difficulty was manipulated with the distance between feet while performing the balance task. Because of the smaller torque generated from a narrow distance, it is easier to perform the balance task in a narrow distance than a wide one. Participants practiced both narrow and wide conditions 10 trials each day. One trial for each condition was examined for the pre-test, mid-test (after two-week practice) and the post-test (after four-week practice), and the duration of balance within the 30-second trial was recorded. The warm-up decrement was measured as the performance difference between the last trial of the previous day and the first trial of the current day of the same condition. The results showed that first, both conditions revealed the significant practice effect on balance time, N condition F(2, 22)=65.282, p<.05, W condition F(2, 22)=74.652, p<.05, where the mid-test and the post-test were longer than the pre-test performance. For the pre-test, N had statistically longer balancing time than W, t(subscript 11)=2.725, p<.05. Second, in general, practice in similar tasks with different difficulty levels could reduce the warm-up decrement, F(1, 11)=11.106, p<.05. Third, the WUD of W condition was significantly improved through practice, t(subscript 11)=6.265, p<.05. Forth, the WUD was significantly decreased when the N was followed by W, t11=2.470, p<.05. In sum, W condition was considerably more difficult than N condition. Performing the more difficult task before the easier one significantly reduced the WUD effect, and the easier task was more likely to benefit (reducing the warm-up decrement) from following a difficult condition at the beginning stage of learning. Based on the findings of the study, performing a more difficult task should reduce the warm-up decrement in the easier task followed.

Parallel keywords

task constraints warm-up decrement

References


陳秀惠(2003)。運動學習曲線所代表的意義:以跳舞機運動爲例。台東師院學報。14,229-244。
廖庭儀(2002)。自然回饋強度對運動技能學習曲線結構之影響。國立臺灣師範大學。
Adams, J. A.(1961).The second facet of forgetting: A review of warm-up decrement.Psychological Bulletin.58,257-273.
Ammons, R. B.(1947).Acquisition of motor skill: I. Quantitative analysis and theoretical formulation.Psychological Review.54,263-281.
Anshel, M. H.(1995).Examining warm-up decrement as a function of interpolated open and closed motor tasks: Implications for practice strategies.Journal of Sport Sciences.13,247-256.

Cited by


陳佳郁(2011)。不同限制對網球正拍擊球動作影響之探討〔碩士論文,國立臺灣師範大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://www.airitilibrary.com/Article/Detail?DocID=U0021-1610201315233773

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