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From Communicative Memory to Cultural Memory: Writings about Beiping Homesickness in Taiwan Food Literature (1960-1980)


台灣早期飲食文學以懷鄉為重要主題,已有許多論者提及,但本文認為,飲食文學懷鄉書寫不僅是個人追舊憶往之作,而更有其社會功能,即藉由往昔飲食的描繪,創造出一個記憶與對話的空間,並在其中型塑作者與讀者群共有的溝通記憶。此記憶空間中的溝通記憶具有雙重的社會性:一方面展現出具規範力的傳統,凝聚了同處境人群的社會網絡,並強化其文化認同;另一方面,這樣的懷鄉書寫將特定的飲食記憶文本化,藉由文化生產者網絡的形成與知識化,溝通記憶被轉化為文化記憶,也影響了讀者對台灣本地飲食的認知。本文分析六○至八○年代台灣飲食文學作品中的北平懷舊書寫,藉由德國學者揚.阿斯曼(Jan Assmann)提出的「溝通記憶vs.文化記憶」觀點,對劉枋、唐魯孫、小民、梁實秋等作者的文本進行分析,並進一步提出,由於飲食活動有相當大程度的身體涉入,在飲食文學的分析上僅追溯認知面的記憶並不足夠,應同時加入身體感知面的分析觀點,才能對飲食文本中懷鄉書寫的社會影響有更清楚的理解。

Parallel abstracts

This article explores food literature from the 1960s to 1980s published in Taiwan, focusing on writings on Beiping homesickness, which is a significant theme during this period. Shedding lights on the social aspects of food literature, this article argues that food writings constitute a space where communicative memory can be formed and further transformed into cultural memory which can be passed down from generation to generation. The process that communicative memory can be transformed into cultural memory involves in the textualization and intellectualization of memory, the social networks of these writers, and the shared cultural identity embodied in their strong yearn for Beiping. These writers viewed Beiping as their hometown while some of them were not born in this city. While the concepts of "communicative memory vs. cultural memory" elaborated by the German scholar Jan Assmann has provided insightful analytical scheme, this research of Taiwan food literature further suggests that bodily memory is also key to understand the formation of food memory since eating, dining and cooking are behaviors achieved by body and sensual perceptions. Through the bodily memories, cultural memories are practiced and acted as a form of knowledge, strengthening the value of "traditional foodways" represented in food literature.



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