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飛行員「飛行壓力內隱聯結測驗」的發展

Development of Implicit Association Test for Flight Stress toward Pilots

Abstracts


本研究目的在發展測量飛行員飛行壓力的「內隱聯結測驗」(Implicit Association Test, IAT),並以一般壓力IAT作為參照。在研究一部分,將36位飛行員隨機分派至壓力與非壓力組,壓力組以十張飛行失事圖片誘發壓力狀態,而非壓力組則僅呈現中性圖片。之後,進行飛行壓力與一般壓力IAT的測量。結果發現,壓力狀況飛行員在飛行壓力IAT的量數高於非壓力狀況者,而一般壓力IAT則無區辨效度,即飛行壓力IAT可以區辨高、低壓力狀態的飛行員。在研究二中,以30位飛行員為參與者,要求參與者觀看研究一的十張壓力圖片,同時也測量其膚電反應(Galvanic Skin Response, GSR),此外,也施測飛行壓力與一般壓力IAT,以及外顯自陳飛行壓力與一般壓力狀態。結果發現,兩個IAT均與GSR呈現顯著相關(r分別為.48與.53)、外顯的一般壓力測量與GSR的r = -.24^n.s,以及外顯飛行壓力測量與GSR的r = -.32。由此顯示,IAT具有效標關聯效度。綜合上述,本研究所編製的壓力IAT具有效度,可以有效測量飛行員的內隱壓力狀態。

Parallel abstracts


This study aims to develop the flight stress Implicit Association Test(IAT)by taking the general stress IAT as reference. In Experiment 1, 36 pilots were randomly assigned to the stress group and the non-stress group. Ten aircraft accident pictures were shown to the pilots in the stress group to induce their stress state, and ten neutral pictures were shown to the pilots in the non-stress group. Afterward, the flight stress IAT and the general stress IAT were performed. The results showed that the score of IAT for the pilots in the stress group was higher than those in the non-stress group. In Experiment 2, 30 pilots were required to watch the same stress pictures as those in Experiment 1, and their Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) were measured at the same time. In addition, the flight stress IAT and the general stress IAT were performed, and the explicit self-repot flight stress and general stress statuses were measured. The results revealed that two IATs and GSR were significantly related (r = .48 and .53, accordingly), the correlation between the explicit general stress measurement and GRS was not significant (r = .24), and the correlation between the explicit flight stress measurement and GRS was not significant either (r = -.32). The results indicated that the flight stress IAT has criterion-related validity. In sum, the flight stress IAT edited in this study is proven to be a valid instrument which can measure pilot’s implicit stress sate.

References


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Ames, S. L.,Grenard, J. L.,Sussman, S.,Wiers, R. W.(2007).Comparison of indirect assessments of association as predictors of marijuana use among at-risk adolescents.Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology.15,204-218.
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