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兒童封閉式創造力潛能測量:「兒童版中文詞彙遠距聯想測驗」之編製及信、效度研究

Assessing Children's Closed-ended Creative Potential: The Development of Chinese Word Remote Associates Test for Children

Abstracts


測量成人創造力潛能的工具可分為開放式與封閉式兩類,近來研究顯示此兩類創造力涉及不同的歷程,與諸多心理因素的關係也不同。然而,目前測量兒童創造力潛能的現有工具仍以開放式創造力為主。本研究係根據Mednick的理論觀點,以「中文詞彙遠距聯想測驗」為基礎,考量國小學童的語文詞彙程度,擬發展一套適用於國內兒童(國小中、高年級學生)封閉式創造力潛能測量的工具,即「兒童版中文詞彙遠距聯想測驗」(CWRAT-C)。本研究經過對75 題預試題目的項目分析,挑選出40 題正式題目,編製為整體難度相同的甲、乙兩式題本,接著以北、中、南、東部國小三至六年級之721 名學童為對象進行施測。研究結果顯示,學童的表現隨著年級而逐漸提高;女童的表現優於男童;不同區域學童的表現並無差異。在信度考驗上,甲、乙兩式的內部一致性係數為.79及.76。在效度考驗上,以「頓悟問題作業」考驗效標關聯效度,顯示效果量達中等程度以上的正相關(rs = .44,.50),且在不同年齡層、性別間皆很穩定;以「報紙的不尋常用途測驗」考驗區辨效度,結果顯示與部分指標存在低至中度效果量的相關,與有些指標則無相關(rs 介於-.11~.38)。CWRAT-C 具有良好的信度與效度,為適合國小學生使用的封閉式創造力測量工具。

Parallel abstracts


Instruments for assessing adults' creative potentials can be distinguished as open-ended and closed-ended types. Recent studies have demonstrated that these two types of creativity involve different processes and exhibit different relationships with various psychological factors. However, available instruments for assessing children's creative potentials are mostly the open-ended type in Taiwan. With regards to Mednick's association theory and adults' Chinese Word Remote Associates Test, the aim of this study is to develop the Chinese Word Remote Associates Test-Children version (CWRAT-C) for assessing children's closed-ended creative potentials. Based on the results of item analysis in pilot study, 40 items were chosen from 75 items and were split into Form A and Form B, which were equal in difficulty level. 721 Grade 3 to Grade 6 children from different regions of Taiwan were then recruited to participate in the study. The results showed a significant ascending trend across age. Girls performed better than boys. There was no performance difference across regions. The Cronbach's of Form A and Form B was .79 and .76, indicating a good internal consistency. As for criterion- related validity, the correlations between two Forms and Insight Problems were .46 and .50, with a medium effect size. As for discriminant validity, the correlations between two Forms and Unusual Uses of the Newspapers Test ranged from -.11 to .38, with a low to medium effect size. In conclusion, CWRAT-C has good reliability and validity and could be an effective instrument for assessing children's closed-ended creative potentials.

References


任純慧、陳學志、練竑初、卓淑玲(2004)。創造力測量的輔助工具:中文遠距聯想量表的編製。應用心理研究。21,195-218。
徐芝君、陳學志、邱發忠(2012)。「報紙的不尋常用途」測驗之編製。創造學刊。3,33-56。
陳榮華(1997)。魏氏兒童智力量表第三版(中文版):指導手冊。臺北市:中國行為科學社。
陳學志()。,未出版。
黃博聖、陳學志()。,未出版。

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