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大眾民主認知與政治學習-不同政治體制的比較分析

People's Perceptions of Democracy and Political Learning: A Comparative Study across Political Regimes

Abstracts


依循政治文化典範,民主態度已成為比較大眾政治態度傾向的研究重點。然而,相較於情感、評價態度,民主的認知內涵則較少受到關注。本文嘗試釐清不同政體大眾民主認知的樣態,並採用Converse的社會學習模型來解釋個人如何在各政體發展對民主的理解內涵。透過分析世界價值調查第六波資料,研究發現民主的內在與工具認知差,相較情感、評價態度更可有效區辨不同政體的民主態度。其次,多層模型證實這項認知差在穩定民主國家最高,選舉式民主國家、非民主國家則較低;當個人所屬國家的民主化時間愈長,其認知差也愈高。本文也發現在穩定民主國家、非民主國家,個人民主認知差將隨著年齡愈長差距愈擴大,表示個人生命時間的政治學習效果在穩定的政治環境明顯較強。本研究結合比較視野與個體理論視角,可更動態地掌握個人隨著生命時間獲取民主認知的歷程。

Parallel abstracts


Popular attitudes toward democracy have become an important topic in political culture research. The cognitive aspect, however, has not received enough attention in contrast with the affective and evaluative ones. This paper aims to clarify people's perceptions of democracy across various types of political regimes and to explain how they can acquire their democratic understandings in different political environments by applying Converse's social learning model. Analyzing data from the 6th wave of the World Values Survey, this paper confirms that the cognitive difference, constructed by the intrinsic and instrumental dimensions, can recognize various types of political regimes more greatly than affective and evaluative attitudes. Also, our findings from multilevel models demonstrate that the average cognitive difference would be higher in old and new democracies than in electoral democracies and non-democracies (particularly in old democracies), and that respondents' cognitive difference can increase along with the more years of democratization in their countries. Moreover, both in old democracies and non-democracies, individuals' cognitive difference would enlarge as their age increases, reflecting that, in stable political environments, there is a stronger impact of individuals' lifetime learning in politics. By bringing the individual-level explanation into a comparative context, this paper can figure out the process of how individuals acquire democratic perceptions along with their life time.

References


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