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兩岸華語詞表之比較及選詞建議

Comparison of TOCFL and HSK Wordlists and Suggestions on Word-selection

Abstracts


常用詞表是語言學習的核心內容,廣受學習者、教師及教材編撰人員的關注。目前兩岸皆提出供華語學習使用的詞表,但分析比較兩岸詞表異同的研究迄今相當少見。本研究首先比對TOCFL和HSK詞表,得到以下幾項重要發現:(1)兩岸選詞相當不同。儘管有3,700個詞相同,但TOCFL有3,619個詞不在HSK詞表中,而HSK詞表有1,296個詞不在TOCFL詞表中。(2)兩岸詞表的詞彙呈現及收詞原則不同。(3)HSK四字詞多出TOCFL詞表4.3倍的數量。(4)TOCFL詞表「兒化」詞的數量高於HSK詞表。此外,本研究觀察發現部分少用詞彙也被納入兩詞表之中。因此,本研究利用兩岸大型語料庫之前1萬筆高頻詞分別檢視兩詞表詞彙。發現TaiwanWac語料庫中有4,770筆語料庫高頻詞未被納入TOCFL詞表中,而Tenten語料庫中有6,357筆語料庫高頻詞未收錄至HSK詞表中。顯示語料庫高頻詞中有部分詞彙可建議納入TOCFL及HSK詞表中,以提升兩詞表品質及涵蓋率。此研究結果及建議可提供華語學習者、教師、教材編輯人員及考試單位作為參考。

Parallel abstracts


General service list is at the core of language learning, and has received the attention of language learners, teachers and even textbook writers. In the field of Chinese learning, the TOCFL wordlist and HSK wordlist are the most well-known wordlists. However, few studies tried to compare these two important wordlists. In this study, we compared the TOCFL and HSK wordlists and found (1) There are 3,700 words shared by both the TOCFL and HSK wordlists while there are 3,619 words in TOCFL different from HSK. In contrast, HSK has only 1,296 words that differ from TOCFL. (2) The TOCFL and HSK wordlists are laid out differently. (3) The HSK contains more than 4.3 times the number of four-character words than TOCFL does. (4) The TOCFL wordlist contains a larger number of ”er” words than the HSK does. Furthermore, we noticed that some low-frequency words were included in these two wordlists. With the help of two large corpora based on web pages of Mainland China and Taiwan, two top 10,000 high-frequency wordlists were compiled. These two wordlists were then compared with TOCFL and HSK wordlists separately. Based on the results of the comparison, we found that 4,770 high-frequency words from the TaiwanWac corpus were not included in the TOCFL wordlist. In addition, 6,357 high-frequency words from the Tenten corpus were not included in the HSK wordlist. To further improve the quality and coverage of TOCFL and HSK wordlists, it is suggested that some of these high-frequency words should be included in the two wordlists. The findings and recommendations of this study can be a useful reference for Chinese learners, teachers, textbook writers, and language test agencies.

References


Bauer, L.,Nation, I.S.P.(1993).Word families.International Journal of Lexicography.6(3),1-27.
Coxhead, Averil(2000).A new academic word list.TESOL Quarterly.34,213-238.
Davies, M.,Gardner, D.(2010).A frequency dictionary of contemporary American English.New York:Routledge.
(Davies, M. 2012. Corpus of Contemporary American English [Online corpus]. Retrieved from http://corpus.byu.edu/coca/).http://corpus.byu.edu/coca/
Dupuy, H. J.(1974).The rationale, development, and standardization of a basic word vocabulary test.US Government Printing Office.

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王韋傑(2016)。全目的語初級華語教材設計與教學研究〔碩士論文,國立臺灣大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6342/NTU201602805
林均芳(2016)。中級華語聽力能力測驗命題研究與教學反思〔碩士論文,國立臺灣大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6342/NTU201601487

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