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The Effect of Key-image Mnemonics to Support Character Learning of Chinese-as-Foreign-Language Learners

漢字鍵接圖法對以英語為母語者的漢字學習成效之影響

Abstracts


The present study aims to examine the effect of Key-image Mnemonics on character learning of Chinese-as-foreign-language (CFL) learners. A 3×2×3 repeated measures design was adopted. The independent variables were learning method (etymology: implicit form+meaning method, Key-image mnemonic: explicit form+meaning method, and stroke sequence: form-emphasis method), character complexity (high and low), and testing point (immediate, post, and delayed tests). The dependent variables were the participants' accuracy in character recognition and reproduction tasks. The participants were 27 English-speaking US college students without Chinese learning experiences. They learned 48 characters in three consecutive sessions. A Latin square design was used to balance the condition order such that, after all sessions, all participants experienced each learning method, but on different sessions for different characters. Results showed that, firstly, the form+meaning methods (i.e., Key-image mnemonic and etymology) consistently lead to superior effects in recognizing and reproducing character forms. Secondly, in the form-meaning recognition task, Key-image mnemonic yielded the best recognition for high-complexity characters, and it benefited recognition equally well as etymology for low-complexity characters. Finally, in the form reproduction task, Key-image mnemonic outperformed the other two methods regardless of character complexity. Implications for teaching and learning Chinese characters were offered.

Parallel abstracts


本研究旨在探討漢字鍵接圖法(Key-image Mnemonics)對以華語為外語之初學者學習識寫漢字之成效。研究對象為美國某大學27位華語零起點之學生。實驗採3×2×3全受試者內設計,獨變項有三:(1)教學法(共三種,皆以動畫呈現:筆順法,強調字形結構;字源法,強調內隱的字形-字義連結;鍵接圖法,強調外顯的字形-字義連結);(2)漢字複雜度(高複雜度;低複雜度);(3)測驗時間點(學習後立即測;後測;延宕後測);依變項為在漢字識記作業與書寫作業之正確率。結果顯示:圖像性教學法(即鍵接圖法與字源法)的效果優於筆順法;同時,在高複雜度漢字的識記與書寫作業中,鍵接圖法的成效最佳。整體結果支持凸顯漢字形-義連結之鍵接圖法對初學者是較有效的學習策略。

References


Atkinson, Richard C. 1975. Mnemotechnics in second-language learning. American Psychologist 30: 821-828.
Atkinson, Richard C., and Michael R. Raugh. 1975. An application of the mnemonic keyword method to the acquisition of a Russian vocabulary. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 104: 126-133.
Bellezza, Francis S. 1996. Mnemonic methods for storage and retrieval. Memory (2nd edition), eds. by Elizabeth L. Bjork, and Robert A. Bjork, 345-380. San Diego: Academic Press.
Bower, Gordon H., and Judith S. Reitman. 1972. Mnemonic elaboration in multi-list learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 11: 478-485.
Brown, H. Douglas. 2008. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. New York: Pearson Press.

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