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《易》學東西譯解同-德儒衛禮賢《易經》翻譯綜論

The Similarity of Translation and Interpretation about Yi-Jing between the East and the West-The Synthetic Discussion of Richard Wilhelm's Yi-Jing Translation

Abstracts


西方《易》學與漢學(Sinology)發展密不可分。自16世紀開始,在耶穌會(SocietasIesu, Society of Jesus)傳教士穿針引線之下,漢學家對《易經》的翻譯與研究興趣,因此持續不絕。其中,德國衛禮賢(Richard Wilhelm, 1873-1930)翻譯先秦儒、道主要經典,發現《易經》的特殊地位與哲學作用,從而進行深入研究,並請教當時中國知名學者勞乃宣(1844-1927)與胡適(1891-1962)等人,完成第一部德文《易經》的翻譯,此部譯本被稱為「西方《易》學史上的《新約全書》」。衛理賢譯筆「簡明」(concise)、「自由」(free)、「想像」(imaginative),是西方公認最準確無誤的譯本,比英國理雅各(James Legge, 1815-1897)的英譯本更能把握《易經》的原義。此外,衛禮賢十分重視《周易.繫辭傳》人生哲學,認為「窮則變,變則通,通則久」的觀念是人類文明中極高的理念;並利用《易經》八卦及六十四卦的道理,探討宇宙的本源與人群社會中的種種問題,成為《易》學「實用派」創始人,與理雅各「文本派」分庭抗禮。其子衛德明(Hellmut Wilhelm, 1905-1990)與貝恩斯(Cary F. Baynes)合譯出刊衛禮賢《易經》英文版,貝恩斯又把衛德明《變化:易經八講》(Changes, Eight Lectures on the I Ching)翻譯英文在美國出版,這兩本英文譯著直接推動美國《易》學研究快速起飛,也使衛禮賢所代表的「實用派」《易》學得到更多的發展。

Keywords

漢學 《易》學 理雅各 衛禮賢 衛德明 貝恩斯

Parallel abstracts


The western Yi-jing-ology and the development of sinology have the close relationship. Since 16th century, the sinologists paid the intention and interest to translate and research Yi-jing by the Society of Jesus. Especilly, Richard Wilhelm (1873-1930) in Germany translated the major canons of Confucianism and Taoism and found the special location and philosophical effect of Yi-jing. Richard Wilhelm began to study deeply and consulted to the famous scholars, Lao Nai-Xuan (勞乃宣, 1844-1927) and Hu Shi (胡適, 1891-1962). Then Richard Wilhelm finished the first German translation of Yi-jing. Richard Wilhelm's Yi-jing translation had the concise, free and imaginative characteristics. Therefore, Richard Wilhelm's Yi-jing translation version had so-called the New Testament of the history of western Yi-jing-ology. Besides, Richard Wilhelm's Yi-jing translation was better than English translation version of James Legge (1815-1897). Richard Wilhelm was much to value the life philosophy and attached importance to the idea of human-being civilization in Yi-jing. So Richard Wilhelm became the founder of the School of Pragmatism, it was different from the School of Text of James Legge. Richard Wilhelm also used the truth of Yi-jing to investigate the issues of the cosmos origin and human society. Richard Wilhelm's son, Hellmut Wilhelm (1905-1990) and Cary F. Baynes (1883-1977) cooperated to translate Richard Wilhelm's German version and other writings into English version. Hellmut Wilhelm and Cary F. Baynes' English versions had directly influenced the development of American Yi-jing-ology. Consequently, the Yi-jing-ology of Richard Wilhelm's School of Pragmatism had gained the more and better advancement in the world of Yi-jing-ology.

References


李雪濤(2008)。日耳曼學術譜系中的漢學─德國漢學研究。北京:外語教學與研究出版社。
岳峰(2004)。架設東西方的橋樑:英國漢學家理雅各研究。福州:福建人民出版社。
范勁(2011)。衛禮賢之名─對一個邊際文化符碼的考察。上海:華東師範大學出版社。
馬漢茂、漢雅娜、張西平編、李雪濤編(2005)。德國漢學─歷史、發展、人物與視角。鄭州:大象出版社。
孫立新編、蔣銳編(2004)。東西方之間─中外學者論衛禮賢。濟南:山東大學出版社。

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