目的：探討身體活動及健康飲食介入對國小學童健康體位與健康體能之成效。研究方法：採類實驗法針對國小體位過重與肥胖學童為對象80 人，實驗組51 人，對照組29人。實驗組與對照組除接受原有例行教學外，實驗組額外接受三個月的身體活動飲食介入教學與課後之運動。兩組皆於介入前完成前測，介入後進行後測，另於三年後追蹤兩組之身體質量指數。研究結果：三個月的介入後，健康體位知識上，實驗組分數進步1.55分較對照組進步之0.21 分為佳(t=2.182*)；在維持健康體位自信心上，實驗組進步2.73分明顯優於對照組之-0.10 分(t=5.339***)；實驗組在身體質量指數(BMI)立即效果降低0.61(kg/m^2)較對照組所降低之0.22(kg/m^2)效果明顯(t=-2.491*)，但在長期之延宕效果上二組BMI 皆上升，但無顯著差異。另外實驗組之健康體能前後測於腰高圍比、柔軟度與瞬發力有明顯改善(t=4.021***, t=-16.543***, t=5.560***)。結論：提供過重與肥胖學童身體活動及健康飲食介入計畫能增加學童健康體位之認知，建立其對健康體位維持之自信心、短期內在健康體能之部份指標達顯著改善。但長期身體質量指數無顯著差別，未來可針對過重與肥胖學童提供實質參與運動的活動或機會，此有賴學校支持性的環境建構，與飲食運動之生活技能融入課程，若要維持長期效果則需有其他的行動策略。
Aims: To evaluate the effects of a healthy diet and physical activity program on the weight and physical fitness of elementary school students. Methods: A quasi experimental trial was conducted on 800 students. Among the students, 51 were assigned to the experimental group, and they underwent a 3-month program in which they were taught about a healthy diet and physical activity and engaged in exercise between classes and after school. The control group comprised 29 students who continued with their routine physical activity regime and followed the unaltered school curriculum. Results: The results indicated that the scores of knowledge regarding a healthy weight increased among students in the experimental group compared with those of the control group (1.55 vs 0.21, t = 2.182*); moreover, the students in the experimental group exhibited higher scores regarding the confidence of maintaining a healthy weight (2.73 vs -0.10, t = 5.339***) and body mass index (0.61 vs 0.22, t = -2.491*). There was no obvious improvement in delayed effects. Significant improvements in waist-to-height ratio, flexibility, and explosive power were observed in the experimental group (t = 4.021***, t = -16.543***, and t = 5.560***). Conclusion: A healthy diet and physical activities program can improve elementary students’ knowledge of physical activities, in addition to enhancing their confidence of maintaining a healthy weight. The authors suggest that schools provide a supportive environment for students to participate in physical activity and that they adopt life-skills into the curriculum. Developing a strategy for maintaining long-term effects is recommended for future research.