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《清文繙譯全藏經》書名、修書機構、翻譯刊刻時間考

The Title, Publisher, and Dates of Translation and Printing of the Qingwen fanyi quan zangjing

Abstracts


乾隆帝將翻譯《清文繙譯全藏經》與編纂《四庫全書》等同看作是其六旬後辦的兩件大事,但由於學者們沒有看到清代文獻中對這部滿文《大藏經》書名的記述,更由於該書本身沒有書名頁,其卷端、修書職銜、目錄前都沒有書名,因而無論是見過還是沒有見過這部藏經的學者,對這部藏經的書名一直莫衷一是,稱呼很是混亂,「滿文《大藏經》」、「《滿文大藏經》」、「滿文《甘珠爾》」、「《滿文藏》」、「《滿文藏經》」、「《滿洲大藏經》」、「《國語譯漢全藏經》」、「《國語譯大藏經》」、「《國語大藏》」、「《清文全藏經》」,五花八門,不一而足。「滿文《大藏經》」只是揭示該藏是滿文,「《滿文大藏經》」與書序名稱及書名著錄原則均不符;「以國語譯漢全藏經」是乾隆帝〈御製清文繙譯全藏經序〉中的一句敍述話語,怎麼都不能把「國語譯漢全藏經」當作書名;「清文全藏經」只是新擬的書名而已。本文據乾隆帝為這部大藏經所撰序文〈清文繙譯全藏經序〉,及乾隆時期文獻中關於《清文繙譯全藏經》記述的內外證,首先為這部滿文藏經正名。清字經館是專為修《清文繙譯全藏經》而設的機構,屬內務府。有學者把清字經館歸為「外朝臨時設置的修書各館」之一,並說清字經館隸屬於軍機處,是不對的,本文對清字經館及譯刻人員進行了討論。本文根據中國第一歷史檔案館藏清宮檔案,否定了《清文繙譯全藏經》工程開始於乾隆三十七年和乾隆三十八年的二種說法,提出乾隆三十六年的觀點,並且確定是西元1772年,不是西元1771年。乾隆四十四年十一月二十五日,「照依妙應寺供奉之蒙古秘密經樣式」裝潢完竣的第1函《大般若經》二十八卷,呈御覽得到允准,表明《清文繙譯全藏經》的刷印、裝潢工作由此正式開始。乾隆五十五年二月初一日,乾隆帝作〈清文繙譯全藏經序〉,標誌《清文繙譯全藏經》翻譯工作完成。對於《清文繙譯全藏經》譯刻完成時間,本文否定了乾隆五十五年等說法,提出乾隆五十九年四月二十六日,「所有滿文《大藏經》108函,12套業已刊印、裝潢、頒發完畢」之論點。

Parallel abstracts


Emperor Qianlong's translation of the Qingwen fanyi quan zangjing 清文繙譯全藏經 (as well as his compilation of the Siku quanshu 四庫全書) was done after he was sixty. However, because scholars have not been aware of the descriptions found in Qing dynasty texts regarding this work, a Manchu-language Buddhist canon, and especially because the canon itself does not contain title pages (nor does its colophon, imprint, or table of contents mention a title), this canon has been given many different names by different scholars. The current article provides the correct title, based on a preface by Qianlong as well as on internal and external evidence found in the descriptions of contemporary texts. According to these sources, the proper title is Qingwen fanyi quan zangjing. The Qing zijing guan 清字經館, belonging to the Imperial Household Department, was an institution formed expressly for the editing and publishing of the Qingwen fanyi quan zangjing. Scholars have incorrectly stated that the Qing zijing guan did not belong to the court, was formed on a temporary basis, or belonged to a military office. The current article discusses the Qing zijing guan and the staff responsible for the translation and plate-carving. Based on the Qing gong dang'an 清宮檔案 held at the Zhongguo diyi lishi dang'an guan 中國第一歷史檔案館, the present article refutes theories that the translation of the Qingwen fanyi quan zangjing was begun in Qianlong 37 or 38, arguing that the correct year is Qianlong 36, during the first months of 1772. According to the colophon, the first section was completed and presented for the emperor’s approval on the 25th day of the 11th month of Qianlong 44 (Jan. 1, 1780). This marks the start of printing and binding. On the 1st day of the 2nd month of Qianlong 55 (March 16, 1790), Qianlong wrote a preface for the Qingwen fanyi quan zangjing, indicating that the translation of the collection was complete. The present article argues against the view that the printing of this collection was completed in 1790, proposing instead the 26th day of the 4th month of Qianlong 59 (May 24, 1794), based on another colophon which states that the printing and distribution of the Manchu-language canon was completed on that date.

References


(2002).滿文大藏經.北京:紫禁城出版社.
(1986)。景印文淵閣四庫全書。臺北:臺灣商務印書館。
《東華續錄》。〔清〕王先謙編。清光緒十年長沙王氏刊本。
(1986)。清實錄。北京:中華書局。

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