Societal cultural has played an important role in the process of science education that allows students to connect their daily-life experiences with the scientific concepts and construct their knowledge about science. In Taiwan, however, the science teaching and learning seldom help facilitate students to construct their scientific knowledge through their own culture and emphasized the contribution of how indigenous cultural facilitated students to construct their scientific knowledge. Therefore, the achievement of aboriginal students received low performance and presented more low identify with their own culture. The purpose of this paper is to review the relevant literature on indigenous science and their roles in science education. To reach this aim, this paper explores the difference between western modern science and indigenous science from the viewpoints about the nature of scientific knowledge and the ways of constructing scientific knowledge. According to the literature review, this paper suggests that the common grounds exist between western modern science and indigenous science. Utilized these common grounds, the indigenous science may help the aboriginal students to construct their scientific knowledge.