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日本創造力教育與研究之發展

The Development of Creativity Education and Research in Japan

Abstracts


本研究探討日本創造力教育政策與相關研究之發展。以文獻探討與內容分析法作為主要研究方法,從論文資料庫中蒐集近年來創造力相關學術發表,包含18篇國際期刊論文、89篇博士論文及2392篇日本期刊論文進行分析。分析期刊論文數量、研究類型和研究對象等重要變項。研究結果如下:一、日本創造力教育可分為四階段,第一階段為1946-1983年,美國暫時主導日本教育,提倡民主與個人主義,日本開始探討創造力內涵。第二階段為1984-1995年,經濟發展強烈仰賴國民創造力與強調個人主義原則,政府開始重視創造力教育。第三階段為1996-2007年,在總合學習時間中將創造力視為是國民重要生存能力之一,創造力教育因此得到更高的關注。第四階段為2008年至今,此階段因總合學習時間課程減少,創造力教育重要性略有下降。二、研究發表上,日本創造力教育相關之國際期刊論文非常少,以探討創造力相關思考風格、人格特質與知識領域的研究居多,多以大學生作為研究對象。無論是日本國內博士論文或者日本國內期刊論文均有許多研究探討創造力相關的智力技能與知識,除了以大學生為主的研究,亦有許多以高中職、國中小為對象的研究,分析有利創造力發展的文化環境或教育方法。教育政策實施與研究產出關係甚大,像是總合時間導入與減少便大幅影響研究產出。

Parallel abstracts


This study aims to investigate the development of policies and research trends of Japan's creativity education. The study uses literature review and content analysis as the primary research methods. The current study systematically collects and analyzes 18 international journal papers, 89 Japanese domestic doctoral theses, and 2392 Japanese domestic journal papers. The total amounts, research types, and research participants of the papers/theses are analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. The development of Japanese education is sorted into four phases. 1946-1983 was the first phase; the US government promoted democratism and individualism in Japanese education; some scholars and governmental sectors began to investigate creativity features. 1984-1995 was the second phase. Since the economic growth heavily relies on creativity and the advocation of individualism, the government began to recognize the importance of creativity education. 1996-2007 was the third phase. The launch of the "The Period of Integrated Study (PIS)" has helped centralize creativity into educational practice, which regarded creativity as an essential component of so-called "survival ability." The fourth phase started from 1998 until the present. Since the PIS's teaching hours reduced severely, the importance of creativity seems to be declined slightly. 2. There are very few articles published in international journals related to Japanese creativity and creativity education in terms of research outputs. Among them, most studies addressed creativity-related thinking styles and personality traits. University/college students were the most studied participants in all papers published in the three international journals. Many studies focused on creativity-related intellectual skills and knowledge in terms of doctoral theses or domestic journal papers. University/college students were the most studied participants, and there are also many studies investigated the students of high school vocational schools and elementary schools to analyze the impact of the cultural environment or innovative teaching. It is found that the practice of educational policies has had a significant impact on the development of research. For example, the launch and reduction of teaching hours of the PIS greatly influenced the research outputs. Some findings and educational implications are offered for educational sectors.

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