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The Development of Creativity Education and Research in Japan



Parallel abstracts

This study aims to investigate the development of policies and research trends of Japan's creativity education. The study uses literature review and content analysis as the primary research methods. The current study systematically collects and analyzes 18 international journal papers, 89 Japanese domestic doctoral theses, and 2392 Japanese domestic journal papers. The total amounts, research types, and research participants of the papers/theses are analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. The development of Japanese education is sorted into four phases. 1946-1983 was the first phase; the US government promoted democratism and individualism in Japanese education; some scholars and governmental sectors began to investigate creativity features. 1984-1995 was the second phase. Since the economic growth heavily relies on creativity and the advocation of individualism, the government began to recognize the importance of creativity education. 1996-2007 was the third phase. The launch of the "The Period of Integrated Study (PIS)" has helped centralize creativity into educational practice, which regarded creativity as an essential component of so-called "survival ability." The fourth phase started from 1998 until the present. Since the PIS's teaching hours reduced severely, the importance of creativity seems to be declined slightly. 2. There are very few articles published in international journals related to Japanese creativity and creativity education in terms of research outputs. Among them, most studies addressed creativity-related thinking styles and personality traits. University/college students were the most studied participants in all papers published in the three international journals. Many studies focused on creativity-related intellectual skills and knowledge in terms of doctoral theses or domestic journal papers. University/college students were the most studied participants, and there are also many studies investigated the students of high school vocational schools and elementary schools to analyze the impact of the cultural environment or innovative teaching. It is found that the practice of educational policies has had a significant impact on the development of research. For example, the launch and reduction of teaching hours of the PIS greatly influenced the research outputs. Some findings and educational implications are offered for educational sectors.