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台灣公共衛生雜誌/Taiwan Journal of Public Health

臺灣公共衛生學會,正常發行

5-year IF 0.271
0.271 2023 年
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綜合 4
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  • Journals

職業健康服務制度乃是國家勞動保護制度中重要的一環;其中,健康檢查與偵測不僅可積極地預防職業疾病的發生,也是促進雇主改善工作環境的重要依據;勞工健康檢查的資料,也是流行病學探究因果關係以及政府發展職業傷病防治策略的基礎。我國職業健康服務制度自1974年「勞工安全衛生法」頒布以來已有30多年歷史,但此制度問題重重,未能充分發揮上述功能。我國制度沿襲自日本,而日本制度又深受西方工業國家影響,因此,考察先進國家制度發展過程與精神有其必要。本文回顧歐美與日本職業健康服務制度之歷史緣起與內容,並回顧國際勞動組織有關職業健康服務之相關報告書所彰顯的制度精神,接著我們回顧台灣職業健康服務制度的發展沿革,並分析檢討目前制度現況,最後對現行制度提出改善建議。從國際制度的發展歷程與制度內容可發現,雇主責任乃是職業健康服務制度的核心原則,而政府政策是否積極介入,以及勞工是否積極參與,乃是該制度能否發揮保護勞工功能之關鍵。

  • Journals

六十五歲以上的老年人即將是世界上人口比例成長最快速的年齡層,而此族群亦是罹患失智症的高風險群。截至目前為止,對於這種令人苦惱的失智疾病尚未開發出有效的治療及介入策略。由於身體活動不足會造成身體功能較差以及提高的心血管疾病的罹病率,而這些因子與失智症卻有間接的關係,因此,本文目的在於瞭解是否從事身體活動可以改善上述因子,進而達到預防失智症的效果。在回顧相關文獻後,會先從(一)身體功能好壞與失智症;(二)心血管危險因子與失智症等主題進行論述,再以身體活動介入對於失智症預防之健康行為促進做探討。根據文獻回顧發現:適當的身體活動應該能達到預防失智症的效益,而罹患該疾病的風險會受性別、基因型態、運動型態及社會因素而影響。綜合以上文獻,本研究提出以下幾點建議:1.目前國人對於藉由身體活動介入來預防疾病的觀念似乎不是很普及,因此,運動推廣人員應當將自身的專業知識大眾化,讓更多人瞭解運動對健康的益處及如何正當的運動。2.增加社區老人團康活動,以提高老年人的身體活動量及人際互動,從中獲得生理、心理及社會健康的益處,以降低罹患失智疾病的風險,進而達到健康老化社會之目的。

  • Journals

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of food consumption during culinary training programs on dental caries (decayed, missing, and filled teeth; DMFT) and on blood lead levels (PbB) in college students. Methods: In this longitudinal two-year follow-up study of 376 freshmen enrolled in the school year 2004 at one culinary college and at one medical university, both located in southern Taiwan, data were collected from September 2004 to September 2006. The final study population included the 247 students who completed the two-wave surveys. Results: After adjusting for the baseline number of dental caries (DMFT), DMFT was found to be reduced (0.302; p=.008) in students whose mothers graduated from college or university. Besides, compared to non-culinary students, culinary students had on average 0.509 more dental caries (p=0.008). After adjusting for baseline blood lead levels (PbB), blood lead levels were higher in men than women (β=0.319; p=0.006). In addition, compared to non-bartender students, bartender students on average had 0.319μg/dL (p=0.006) more PbB. Conclusions: After adjusting for confounding factors, we found culinary training increases the risk for dental caries, and bartender training significantly increases PbB; therefore, occupational health education programs should alert people involved in the culinary field to the potential health hazards of their employment.

  • Journals

目標:在藉由香菸的價格彈性估計來評估提高香菸健康捐課徵對香菸消費的影響,研究結果有助於台灣未來調漲香菸健康捐之重要參考依據。方法:使用門檻迴歸(threshold regression)搭配短視上癮模型(myopic addiction model),以1975-2006年的菸品價量時間數列資料,估計香菸的價格彈性。結果:高價區及低價區的香菸格彈性分別-0.7312及-0.1204。若依國民健康局菸害防制法修正案國內菸品健康捐由10元增加為20元,將使國人平均每人香菸消費減少14.36%,節省醫療支出約8.45%(約30.86億)。結論:門檻模型的估計結果與一般線性模式確實有差異;另一方面,從菸害防制及財政的觀點,課徵香菸捐將有助於抑制國人香菸的消費,又可以額外增加政府財政收益。

  • Journals

目標:分析影響台灣成年民眾憂鬱情緒的社會經濟狀況、一般健康狀態、與健康行為因素。方法:採橫斷式研究,以2002年國民健康局「台灣地區國民健康促進知識、態度與行為調查」中20歲以上受訪者為研究對象,憂鬱測量以「台灣人憂鬱量表」之總分≧19分為「憂鬱情緒」者,並以邏輯式迴歸分析影響憂鬱情緒的因素。結果:有效樣本共23,466人,依據20~44歲、45~64歲、與65歲以上老人以及男、女分成六組,其憂鬱情緒比率分別為3.4%、5.4%、3.0%、5.5%、5.5%、10.2%。各組的憂鬱情緒主要受到一般健康狀況所影響,自覺健康狀況不好、有慢性疼痛、日常活動功能有困難、罹患慢性病種類越多者其憂鬱情緒比率較高。20~44歲與45~64歲男性的憂鬱情緒容易受到社會經濟因素所影響,特別是月所得因素,男性的月所得越高者其憂鬱情緒的比率越低;20~44歲組女性的憂鬱情緒僅受到婚姻狀態的影響。在健康行為方面,20~44歲組男、女性有規律運動者其憂鬱情緒比率較低;吸菸與飲酒行為對於女性較具影響力,特別是20~44歲與65歲以上女性的憂鬱情緒與吸菸行為顯著相關。結論:一般健康狀況因素與憂鬱情緒密切相關,而社會經濟與健康行為因素僅對於特定性別或年齡層具有影響力,因此,建議預防憂鬱的政策需要有多面向的策略。

  • Journals

Objectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors associated with the willingness of policemen to participate in needle exchange programs in Taiwan. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among policemen who attended an introductory program about needle exchange programs in seven counties of southern Taiwan. Anonymous, voluntary questionnaires were distributed to the policemen. These included scales for assessing knowledge and attitude toward HIV and hepatitis, attitudes toward injection drug users (IDUs), and experiences during drug crackdowns. Results: A total of 745 policemen attended introductory programs. Of the 467 respondents (62.7% of the survey sample), fifty-six percent of the policmen (n=247) were willing to actively participate in the needle exchange programs. Compared to the unwilling participants, policemen willing to actively participate in the needle exchange programs: had higher scores on knowledge of HIV and hepatitis (OR, 1.27; 95%CI, 1.07-1.51; p<0.01), felt comfortable being with IDUs (OR, 1.24; 95%CI, 1.06-1.45; p<0.01), were older (OR, 1.12, 95%CI, 1.02-1.22; p<0.05), had a negative attitude toward IDUs (OR, 0.88 ; 95%CI, 0.78-0.99; p<0.05), and experienced fewer episodes of splattering by suspect’s blood (OR, 0.44; 95%CI, 0.21-0.90; p<0.05). Conclusions: It is important for policemen to improve their knowledge about HIV and hepatitis, and about ways to prevent occupational exposure to bloodborne transmitted viruses. A comprehensive and effective post-exposure protocol is essential in order to minimize the risk of occupational bloodborne viral infections for policemen and to enhance their willingness to actively participate in needle exchange programs.

  • Journals

Objectives: The study analyzed the dating and premarital sexual behaviors of adolescents with different backgrounds who had ever made friends on the Internet. The study also aimed to discern the differing influential factors on the dating and premarital sexual behavior of adolescents of the opposite sex who first met virtually or in-person. Methods: A stratified cluster sampling method was used to identify 1003 second-year public junior high school, high school, and vocational school students in Taipei with Internet friend-making experience. Participants completed a cross-sectional questionnaire. Results: Of the participants, 19.2% had dated a person of the opposite sex first met on the Internet, which was reflected in their lower score for the family relationship portion of the questionnaire (p<.001). The main factor influencing the pursuit of a virtual or reality-based romantic relationship varied with participants; those inclined to a virtual route were influenced by their friendship with opposite gender peers, while the degree of premarital sexual behavior acceptance influenced reality-based relationships (p<.001). The degree of willingness to date was the strongest predictive factor for sexual openness with Internet companions, while acceptance of premarital sexual behavior most strongly predicted pursuit of a reality-based relationship. Conclusions: Family relationship is an important protective factor to reduce high-risk sexual behavior of adolescents. The patterns of adolescent dating and premarital sexual behavior with opposite sex companions first met through the Internet and in person are different. Intervention strategies should take into account these different patterns. necessary to divide groups in designing the intervention courses to meet their different needs.

  • Journals

目標:許多研究評估「糖尿病醫療給付改善方案」之成效,然而這些評估多缺乏對照組,且較少著墨於偏遠鄉鎮的個案。本研究藉由比較共同照護網參與組和對照組重複測量資料,評估糖尿病共同照護網對偏遠地區中老年患者相關代謝指標的長期控制成效。方法:以回溯式研究法進行資料收集及分析。資料來源為中台灣某地區醫院2002年12月至2007年7月之門診個案。採共變量分析(ANCOVA)比較兩組在二時間點上的差異,並以混合模式(mixed models)比較兩組的變化趨勢。結果:參與組的空腹血糖控制在參與照護網約三個月後與對照組呈現顯著差異;糖化血色素、總膽固醇和三酸甘油酯則在參與照護網約九個月後與對照組有顯著差異。結論:糖尿病共同照護網對於改善個案之糖化血素、空腹血糖、總膽固醇和三酸甘油酯的成效佳,對高、低密度脂蛋白膽固醇的改善效果則不明顯。多數患者在多項代謝指標的控制上,仍未達美國糖尿病學會的建議目標。參與組的長期控制成效明顯較佳,建議患者應長期且持續接受適當的衛教和照護介入。