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科技醫療與社會/Taiwanese Journal for Studies of Science, Technology and Medicine

  • Ahead-of-Print

國立科學工藝博物館,正常發行

5-year IF 0.128
0.128 2023 年
Discipline Ranking
綜合 23
Provided by Academic Citation Index

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Robert Andrews Millikan's oil-drop experiment provided a fairly accurate measurement of the charge of the electron. However, Millikan discarded data that did not fit with his initial hypothesis regarding the value of the charge and was not honest about doing so in his published work. I use this case in order to develop an objection to Hasok Chang's operational coherence theory of truth, according to which a statement is true if belief in that statement is needed when engaging in a coherent activity. I argue that Millikan's data reduction is a coherent activity, and that Millikan's belief in his initial hypothesis regarding the charge of the electron was needed in this coherent activity because it provided the grounds for discarding some of the data. According to Chang's theory, Millikan's initial hypothesis is therefore true. Even if we think that Chang's theory provides the correct result in this case, it does so for the wrong reason. The fact that Millikan needed to believe in his initial hypothesis in order to determine which data to discard is not a good reason for concluding that his initial hypothesis is true.

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本文以模組組裝和模型整合觀點發展現代免疫學的發現模式。免疫學家為說明發炎反應現象,通常會從背景知識擷取可用的機制模組,將其與推測有因果關聯的機制成份拼裝出一個新的機制模型,然後用之設計干預實驗,產生多個資料模組進而組成資料模型,作為新發現的證據。過程中,免疫學家須在機制、實驗與資料三種模型內建立模組間的因果連續性,並且使三種模型的結果達成一致。本文爭論,免疫學家是透過建立模型內因果連續性與整合異質模型間的一致性來層層構成發現證成。由於此觀點是將先前哲學重視以機制假說或實驗現象為主的研究對象拆解為單位更小的模組,故打破傳統以假說或現象為主的二分。本文以一篇當代免疫學論文為分析案例,為新觀點提供證據。

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近二十年來,神經科學哲學家習於用科學說明的知識價值來評價神經科學模型,並分別發展出機制說明論與非機制說明論的觀點。這兩個觀點各自闡述了何謂科學說明,以及如何使用科學說明的知識標準來評價一個神經科學模型。本文將以神經科學中的正則模型為案例研究,並論證既有的(非)機制說明論架構過度專注於分析模型物件本身的表徵內容,而較不重視模型的建模歷程以及建模者的知識態度,因而忽略了一些在建模過程中,不屬於機制說明與非機制說明這兩種科學說明的知識價值。本文將重構正則模型的建模歷程與相關建模者的知識態度,並藉此主張,建模者在不同的建模脈絡,可以對同一類但不同個例的正則模型,採用不同的知識價值來評價模型的知識品質。此外,本文將進一步指出,以建模歷程與建模知識態度的分析架構來處理神經科學建模實作,不僅能夠同時容納機制說明與非機制說明的觀點,也能捕捉到兩方觀點所遺漏的建模知識價值。

  • Journals

隨著COVID-19疫情的發展,疫苗接種義務與疫苗護照治理,實為民主國家邁向新常態的重大挑戰,在國際間獲得重大關注。本文首先討論疫苗接種義務之可行性,指出所涉之基本權保障問題;其次,就疫苗護照之治理,探討其形式與效力的設計,並進一步針對平等、隱私與間接形成強制接種義務等疑慮,參考國際上之制度與評論進行分析。期待透過本文提出之評估框架與考量要點,擴充國內對於COVID-19疫苗接種義務與疫苗護照制度之想像與討論空間。