Title

漢畫像石「車馬出行圖」之帝國想像

Translated Titles

The Imperial Imagination in Depictions of Journeys by Horse and Carriage in Han Dynasty Stone Reliefs

Authors

吳旻旻(Min-Min Wu)

Key Words

畫像石 ; 漢墓 ; 車馬出行圓 ; 漢代 ; 帝國想像 ; stone reliefs ; Han tomb ; depictions of journeys by horse and carriage ; Han dynasty ; imperial imagination

PublicationName

漢學研究

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

28卷4期(2010 / 12 / 01)

Page #

1 - 39

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

「車馬出行圖」乃漢代畫像石中相當常見的圖像。過去學界對於此一主題的詮釋包括:將圖像上車駕的數量、配備比對《後漢書》之〈輿服志〉來推測墓主身分;經由圖像配置規律的掌握來剖析刻繪車馬的功能意義;主張畫像石反映漢代社會生活等。本論文首先探討舊說之得失,試著指出畫像石雖然是喪葬藝術,但是投射了人間的慾望,而且政治色彩與想像意味濃厚。因為隨著出土畫像石墓日漸增加,愈來愈多的學者一致認同墓主大部分是小官或平民。然而,包含車馬出行、樓閣拜竭、胡漢戰爭等常見圖像內容,往往以高官生活為藍圖,且在物質層次之外,還隱含意識形態。因此本文提出漢代畫像石中取材現實的部分具有「帝國想像」之特質。進而由視覺角度切入,分析畫像「車馬出行圖」透過繪畫語言傳達出強健帝國象徵、入仕渴望等意識,並反映出國家觀念建立於郡縣吏治之上,最後解釋漢代畫像石出現帝國想像之成因。

English Abstract

Depictions of journeys by horse and carriage (車馬出行圖) are one of the most common types of stone relief found in Han dynasty tombs. Past scholars studying these artworks have analyzed them in several ways. For example, the number and fittings of carriages in the reliefs have been compared to those in the ”Records of Carriages and Clothing 輿服志” section of the Book of the Later Han 後漢書to try to ascertain the socioeconomic class of the tomb's occupant. The placement and positions of figures and other elements in the scenes depicted in the stone reliefs have been analyzed to infer the functions of the carriages and horses. It has also been held that the images in the stone reliefs reflect social life during the Han dynasty. This article discusses the pros and cons of previous analyses, and points out that, although they are mortuary artworks, the stone reliefs reveal characteristics of the desires of the living, and possess a strong political and imaginative flavor. With an increasing number of Han tombs and their stone reliefs excavated, scholars are in increasing agreement that most of the tombs belong to low-level officials or civilians. However, the common types of mortuary artworks, including depictions of journeys by carriage, depictions of obeisance in a storied building (樓閣拜謂圖), and depictions of wars between Hu and Han (胡漠戰爭圖), usually portray the lives of high-level officials. These artworks not only depict aspects of material life but also imply abstract ideology; this article proposes that the practical aspect of the themes selected for depiction in Han stone reliefs reveals a characteristic ”imperial imagination.” This interpretation was arrived at by analyzing from a visual perspective those artworks depicting journeys by horse and carriage. The pictorial language of these reliefs expresses the symbols of a strong and robust empire as well as the ideology of aspiration for political position. They also reflect the fact that the conception of empire was built upon the administrative and legal systems of prefectures and counties. The article concludes with an explanation of the factors of the imperial imagination present in the stone reliefs in Han dynasty tombs

Topic Category 人文學 > 哲學
人文學 > 歷史學
人文學 > 語言學
人文學 > 中國文學