Title

中國當代科幻小說中的疾病與醫療書寫

Translated Titles

Disease and Medicine in Contemporary Chinese Science Fiction

DOI

10.6637/CWLQ.202009_49(3).0006

Authors

郁旭映(Xuying Yu)

Key Words

現代性 ; 技術樂觀主義 ; 醫學人道主義 ; 文明的衝突 ; 後人類 ; 主體性 ; modernity ; technological optimism ; medical humanism ; clash of civilizations ; posthuman ; subjectivity

PublicationName

中外文學

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

49卷3期(2020 / 09 / 30)

Page #

145 - 180

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

科幻小說中,疾病及醫療的書寫差異折射出現代性想像所經歷的變遷。本文擬以四部醫療科幻──劉興詩〈鄉村醫生〉(1963)、葉永烈〈愛之病〉(1986)、王晉康《生死平衡》(1997)和陳楸帆〈未來病史〉(2015)──為主要例子,從中國當代科幻小說中梳理出一段粗略的疾病與醫療史。首先,「疾病」經歷了隱喻化過程:從普通的常見病,到「資本主義」特殊病,到象徵「文明衝突」的流行性病毒,再到後人類的身心變異。相應地,「醫病」的態度經歷變遷:從技術樂觀主義,到醫學人道主義,到對西方現代醫學的挑戰,再到以後人類「診斷」人類。更深層意義上,疾病敘事的變化反映了當代科幻小說中現代性想像的不同階段:社會主義現代性;從社會主義現代性到西方現代性的過渡;對於西方現代性的反思和替代性方案的尋找;以後人類角度超越現代性。在此過程中,人的主體建構方式亦發生改變:從集體主義主體性,到帶有意識形態標籤的個人主體性,到帶有文化特徵的個人主體性,再到後人類主體性的建構。

English Abstract

Through an analysis of four works, this study delineates the history of disease and medicine in contemporary Chinese science fiction. Specifically, Liu Xingshi's "The Village Doctor" (1963) echoes Maoist public health policies with scientific utopianism; Ye Yonglie's "Illness of Love" (1986) expresses an anxiety about the infection of a "capitalist disease" in the era of opening up; Wang Jinkang's Balance between Life and Death (1997) imagines the challenge of Western medicine within the framework of cultural clash; and Chen Qiufan's "Future Disease" (2015) exposes how technology transforms human subjectivity to posthuman subjectivity. As illness is metaphorized from physical to ideological and cultural, the medical response transforms from technological optimism to medical humanitarianism, then to the challenging of modern Western medicine, and finally to the deconstruction of the "human" itself. Such transformation reflects the four stages of the Chinese discourse of modernity: socialist modernity, the transition from socialist modernity to Western modernity, the critique of Western modernity and the search for an alternative, and the transcendence of modernity in the posthuman future. This process also reflects the changing representation of human subjectivity, i.e., from collective subjectivity to individual subjectivity with an ideological label, to culturalist subjectivity, and finally to posthuman subjectivity.

Topic Category 人文學 > 中國文學
人文學 > 外國文學
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