Title

法國保教權對中國天主教會本土化之影響:問題與解決之道

Translated Titles

The French Protectorate's Impact on the Inculturation of the Chinese Catholicism: Problems and Solutions

DOI

10.30389/MCS.202103_64(1).0002

Authors

陳聰銘(Tsung-ming Chen)

Key Words

法國保教權 ; 剛恆毅 ; 天主教會本地化 ; 中梵關係 ; French Protectorate ; Celso Costantini ; Inculturation of Catholic Church ; Sino-Vatican Relations

PublicationName

中國大陸研究

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

64卷1期(2021 / 03 / 01)

Page #

21 - 55

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

法國在華保教權的起源在於清廷之腐敗、國勢衰弱、官員不識國際政治外交和法國帝國主義者野心所致。為了完整呈現法國保教權的本質與發展,本研究首先溯及其源由、演變,式微乃至消滅之歷史演變,再探討該制度如何影響在華天主教人員組織架構、運作發展、語言、禮儀和藝術建築;同時,保教權也引發許多問題,特別是傳教士與本地教士的地位不平等的問題,以及傳教士主導中國教務,天主教的形象也遭到扭曲,而被外教人指摘是洋人的宗教,充滿洋化色彩,也是西方帝國主義的工具。這負面的形象在1910年代以後中國民族主義高漲的年代特別引人側目,也成為傳教之阻礙。這些問題促使教廷正視,遂派遣首任駐華宗座代表剛恆毅尋求解決之道,並進行改革。本研究歸納出中國天主教教會本地化的關鍵因素,在於國籍教士的地位與角色、教廷的支持與中國政府對教會施加的壓力,而中國國勢與國際地位的上升更促使法國在華保教權成為歷史陳蹟。中國擺脫外國列強的束縛後,天主教會才得以逐漸走向自主,展開另一階段本土化歷程。

English Abstract

The French Protectorate in China was the consequence caused by the corruption of the Qing's imperial court, the deterioration of national power in China, ignorance to the international politics and, essentially, the ambition of the French imperialists. In order to present a clear picture on the nature and the different stages of the Protectorate in China, this study traces back to the origin, examines its development and the abolition of this system; providing a clear account on how this regime promoted by the French government on Catholicism in China: its members, ecclesiastic structure, activities, languages, liturgy, fine arts, and architectures, etc. The French Protectorate triggered a series of issues, especially on the inequalities between the foreign missionaries and the native clergymen, in which the missionary affairs were under the strict control of the former. This led to the impression of Catholicism in China as a Western religion associated to the Western people. Moreover, it was considered as an instrument of imperialist expansion. This unfavorable image of Catholicism positioned to the public was widely criticized by the emerging Chinese nationalist movement since the 1910s. These problems undermined the effort of the Catholic evangelization that concerned the Holy See to initiate an investigation by sending the first apostolic delegate, Mgr. Celso Costantini, to China to seek for solutions and undertook further reforms where deemed necessary. This study concludes that the key elements in the process of the inculturation of Chinese Catholicism largely rely on the native cleric's status, the support of the Holy See, as well as the pressure from the Nationalist government upon the Church. Only by having liberated itself from the restraints of Western powers, the Chinese Catholic Church earned its ground towards autonomy and basis to begin its inculturation.

Topic Category 社會科學 > 政治學