Translated Titles

The Process of Transforming Daily Social Interactions to Relationship Intimacy: A Longitudinal Study




林以正(Yi-Cheng Lin);黃金蘭(Chin-Lan Huang)

Key Words

修訂羅徹斯特互動量表 ; 親密感 ; 自我表露 ; 回應 ; Revised Rochester Interaction Record ; intimacy ; self-disclosure ; responsiveness



Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

48卷1期(2006 / 03 / 01)

Page #

35 - 52

Content Language


Chinese Abstract


English Abstract

In the past three decades, the debate of which factor, self-disclosure or partner responsiveness, plays the central role in the process of intimacy is still on and the dynamics among these factors remain unknown. According to Reis & Shaver (1988), however, the intimacy process begins when one person expresses personally revealing feelings or information to another person. To become intimate, the discloser must also feel understood, validated, cared for by the listener. Thus, this theory suggests that the specific combination of self-disclosure and perceived partner responsiveness plays an essential role in the development of relationship intimacy. Although the model does provide an insightful perspective, little empirical research has yet been done to test this model. The current study is design to test this theoretical model, looking at the role of self-disclosure and partner responsiveness in the process of transforming daily social interactions to relationship intimacy. Furthermore, a longitudinal follow-up was conducted, in which both relationship intimacy and social interaction data were collected both in the Fall and Spring semesters. Participants recorded their daily social interactions using the Revised Rochester Social Interaction Record and their relationship intimacy with the interaction partners were measured by a Q-sort method. Because this study was a simulated within-subject design, hierarchical within-subject regression analyses were conducted, which ruled out individual differences and permitted us to focus exclusively on relationship processes. Two regression analyses were first conducted for the two cross-sectional phases separately. In both cases, the simple effects as well as the unique effects of self-disclosure and perceived partner responsiveness were all significant. The results supported the hypothesis that both self-disclosure and perceived partner responsiveness are functional in the process of intimacy. The consistent results from both semesters also indicate that this correlation pattern was reliable. Cross-lag analysis showed that all the variables in time 1 were predictive of all the variables in time 2, indicating that the causal directions might not be linear nor unidirectional. Nonetheless, there were other trends especially worth noting. First, the highest correlation was between two relationship intimacy indices, whereas the interaction indices were relatively less reliable compared to the relationship intimacy. Second, both cross-sectional and cross-lag analyses showed that perceived partner responsiveness had relatively stronger effect sizes than did self-disclosure. The theoretical implications of these results were discussed. In addition, the contributions of the current methodology to the study of personal relationships and relationship processes were also discussed.

Topic Category 社會科學 > 心理學
  1. 林以正(1999)。華人的社會比較:比較什麼,與誰比較,為何比較。本土心理學研究,11,93-125。
  2. Altman, I.,Taylor, D. A.(1973).Social penetration: The development of interpersonal relationships.New York:Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
  3. Bem, D. J.(1972).V.Advances in experimental social psychology,6,1-62.
  4. Berg, J. H.,Archer, R. L.(1982).Responses to self-disclosure and interaction goals.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,18,501-512.
  5. Berg, J. H.,Archer, R. L.(1980).Disclosure or concern: A second look at liking for the norm-breaker.Journal of Personality.
  6. Berg, J. H.,Clark, M. S.(1986).Differences in social exchange between intimate and other relationships: Gradually evolving or quickly apparent?.Friendship and social interaction.
  7. Berscheid, E.(1986).The emerging field of personal relationships.Hillsdale, NJ:Erlbaum.
  8. Berscheid, E.(1999).The greening of relationship science.American Psychologist.
  9. Bowlby, J.(1982).Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment.New York:Basic Books.
  10. Bowlby, J.(1979).The making and breaking of affectional bonds.London:Tavistock.
  11. Caldwell, M. A.,Peplau, L. A.(1982).Sex differences in same-sex friendship.Sex Roles.
  12. Cassidy, J.,Shaver, P. R.(1999).Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications.
  13. Chelune, G. J.,Robinson, J. T.,Kommor, M. J.(1984).A cognitive interactional model of intimacy relationships.Communication intimacy, and close relationships.
  14. Clark, M. S.,Reis, H. T.(1988).Interpersonal processes in close relationships.Annual Review of Psychology.
  15. Cohen, J.,Cohen, P.(1975).Applied multiple regression correlation analysis for the behavior science.
  16. Cozby, P. C.(1973).Self-disclosure: A literature review.Psychological Bulletin.
  17. Csikszentmihylyi, M.,Larson, R.(1984).Being adolescent: Conflict and growth in teenage years.
  18. Davis, D.,kinner, A. E.(1974).Reciprocity of self-disclosure in interviews: Modeling or social exchanges?.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,39,779-784.
  19. Davis, D.,Perkowitz, W. T.(1979).Consequences of responsiveness in dyadic interaction: Effects of probability of response and proportion of contentrelated responses on interpersonal attraction.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  20. Derlega, V. J.,Harris, M. J.,Chaikin, A. L.(1973).Self-disclosure and reciprocity, liking, and the deviant.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.
  21. Drigotas, S. M.,Rusbult, C. E.,Wieselquist, J.,Whitton, S. W.(1999).Close partner as sculptor of the ideal self: Behavioral affirmation and the michelangelo phenomenon.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  22. Duck, S. W.(1983).Friends for life.
  23. Duck, S. W.(1988).Relating to others.
  24. Duck, S. W.,Miell, D. E.(1986).The emerging field of personal relationships.Hillsdale, NJ:LEA.
  25. Ehrlich, H. J.,Graeven, D. B.(1971).Reciprocal self-disclosure in a dyad.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,7,389-400.
  26. Fiske, S. T.,Taylor, W. E.(1984).Social cognition
  27. Fletcher, G. J. O.,Fincham, F. D.(1990).Attribution processes in close relationship.Cognition in close relationship.
  28. Gable, S. L.,Reis, H.,Impett, E. A.,Asher, E. R.(2004).What do you do when things go right? The intrapersonal and interpersonal benefits of sharing positive events.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,87,228-245.
  29. Heider, F.(1958).The psychology of interpersonal relations.New York:Wiley.
  30. Helgeson, V. S.,Shaver, P.,Dyer, M.(1987).Prototypes of intimacy and distance in same-sex and opposite-sex relationships.Journal of Social and Personal Relationships.
  31. Hinde, R. A.(1979).Towards understanding relationships.London:Academic Press.
  32. Hwang, K. K.(2000).Chinese relationalism: Theoretical construction and methodological considerations.Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior,30,155-178.
  33. Jourard, S. M.(1964).The transparent self.New York:Van Nostrand.
  34. Jourard, S. M.(1971).Self-disclosure: an experimental analysis of the transparent self.
  35. Kelley, H. H.(1967).Attribution theory in social psychology.Nebraska symposium on motivation.
  36. Kelley, H. H.,Berscheid, E.,Christensen, A.,Harvey, J. H.,Huston, T. L,Lenvinger, G.,McClintock, E.,Peplau, L. A.,Peterson, D. R.(1983).Close relationships.
  37. Kenny, D. A.,LaVoie, L.(1984).The social relations model. In L. Berkowitz.Advances in experimental social psychology.
  38. Laurenceau, J. P.,Barrett, L. F.,Pitromonnaco, P.(1998).Intimacy as an interpersonal process: The importance of self-disclosure, partner disclosure, and perceived partner responsiveness in interpersonal exchanges.Journal of personality and Social Psychology,74,1238-1251.
  39. Lin, Y. C.(1992).New York,University of Rochester, Rochester.
  40. Lynn, S. J.(1978).Three theories of self-disclosure exchange.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.
  41. Markus, H.(1977).Self-schemata and processing information about the self.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,35,63-78.
  42. Markus, H.,Smith, J.(1981).The influence of self-schema on the perception of others.Personality, cognition, and social interaction.
  43. Mikulincer, M.(1998).Attachment working models and the sense of trust: An exploration of interaction goals and affect regulation.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,74,1209-1224.
  44. Miyake, K.(1992).Rochester, New York,University of Rochester.
  45. Montgomery, B. M.(1984).Behavioral characteristics predicting self and peer perceptions of open communication.Communication Quarterly.
  46. Montgomery, B. M.(1981).Verbal immediacy as a behavioral indicator of open communication content.Communication Quarterly.
  47. Murray, S. L.,Bellavia, G. M.,Rose, P.,Griffin, D. W.(2003).Once hurt, twice hurtful: How perceived regard regulates daily marital interactions.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,84,12-147.
  48. Murray, S. L.,Holmes, J. G.,Griffin, D. W.(1996).The benefits of positive illusions: Idealization and the construction of satisfaction in close relationships.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,70,79-89.
  49. Murray, S. L.,Rose, P.,Holmes, J. G.,Derrick, J.,Podchaski, E. J.,Bellavia, G.,Griffin, D. W.(2005).Putting the partner within reach: A dyadic perspective on felt security in close relationships.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,88,327-347.
  50. Neter, J.,Wasserman, W.,Kutner, M. H.(1985).Applied linear statistical models.
  51. Nezlek, J. B.(2003).Using multilevel random coefficient modeling to analyze social interaction diary data.Journal of Social and Personal Relationships,20,437-469.
  52. Reis, H. T.(1990).The role of intimacy in interpersonal relations.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology,9,15-30.
  53. Reis, H. T.(1984).Social interaction and well-being.Personal relationships 5: Repairing personal relationships.
  54. Reis, H. T.,Downey, G.(1999).Social cognition in relationships: Building essential bridges between two literatures.Social Cognition,17,97-117.
  55. Reis, H. T.,Rusbult, C. E.(2004).Relationship science: a casual and somewhat selective review.Close relationships: Key readings.
  56. Reis, H. T.,Shaver, P.(1988).Intimacy as an interpersonal process.Handbook of personal relationships: Theory, relationships and interventions.
  57. Repetti, R. L.(1989).Effect of daily workload on subsequent behavior during marital interaction: The roles of social withdrawal and spouse support.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,57,651-659.
  58. Ross, M.(1989).Relation of implicit theories to the construction of personal histories.Psychological Review.
  59. Sternberg, R. J.(1986).A triangular theory of love.Psychological review.
  60. Sternberg, R. J.,Grajek, S.(1984).The nature of love.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,47,312-329.
  61. Stokes, J. P.(1987).The relation of loneliness and self-disclosure.Self-disclosure: Theory, research, and therapy.
  62. Stone, A. A.,Neale, J. M.(1984).The effect of sever daily events on mood.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,46,137-144.
  63. Swann, Jr. W. B.(1987).Identity negotiation: Where two roads meet.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,53,1038-1051.
  64. Swann, Jr. W. B.,Hill, C. A.(1982).When our identities are mistaken: Reaffirming self-conceptions through social interaction.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  65. Tversky, A.,Kahneman, D.(1982).Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases.Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases.
  66. Waring, E. M.,Chelune, G. J.(1983).Marital intimacy and self-disclosure.Journal of Clinical Psychology,39,183-190.
  67. Waring, E. M.,Tillman, M. P.,Frelick, L.,Russell, L.,Weisz, G.(1980).Concepts of intimacy in the general population.Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease,168,471-474.
  68. Wheeler, L.,Nezlek, J.(1977).Sex differences in social participation.Journal of personality and Social Psychology,35,742-754.
  69. Wheeler, L.,Reis, H. T.(1991).Self-recording of everyday life events: Origins, types, and uses.Journal of Personality,59,339-354.
  70. 林以正、黃金蘭(1993)。因何寂寞?由日常的社會互動檢證。中華心理學會年會
  71. 邱宗怡、林以正、雷庚玲(2004)。伴侶行為肯定對心理安適的影響。台灣心理學會年會
  72. 黃光國(1988)。人情與面子:中國人的權力遊戲。臺北:桂冠圖書公司。
Times Cited
  1. 徐憶梅(2010)。日漸親近—中年夫妻情感親密經驗探究。交通大學教育研究所學位論文。2010。1-206。 
  2. 陳冠宇(2010)。越南籍新移民女性在臺從事「性工作」原因及生活適應之探討-以高雄縣為例。樹德科技大學人類性學研究所學位論文。2010。1-188。 
  3. 黃瀅伃(2015)。機器寵物對人際互動之影響。臺中科技大學多媒體設計系碩士班學位論文。2015。1-100。 
  4. 蘇朝輝(2013)。虛擬社群應用程式使用意願與從眾行為之關係 -以智慧型行動裝置平台為例。臺中科技大學多媒體設計系碩士班學位論文。2013。1-59。 
  5. 尤淑娟(2011)。Web 2.0社交網絡中影響資訊分享與自我揭露之因素。臺中科技大學資訊工程系碩士班學位論文。2011。1-82。 
  6. 劉仲綱(2017)。男同志伴侶對親密感的知覺、感受及其反應。國立臺北教育大學心理與諮商學系學位論文。2017。1-109。 
  7. 辜贈憓(2017)。補救教學學生課室互動行為之個案研究 --E.Goffman 戲劇理論之應用。國立臺北教育大學課程與教學傳播科技研究所學位論文。2017。1-172。 
  8. 程威銓(2011)。承諾感作為「我們」字詞使用與親密關係滿意度之調節變項。臺灣大學心理學研究所學位論文。2011。1-86。 
  9. 林瑋珊(2011)。虛擬社群使用者感知成本與效益對自我揭露、知識分享行為之影響。臺灣師範大學管理研究所學位論文。2011。1-99。
  10. 鄭伊伶(2012)。海洛因依賴者之人格特質與親密關係相關研究。樹德科技大學人類性學研究所學位論文。2012。1-90。
  11. 江曉珍(2012)。諮商專業工作者與個案的 雙文化自我概念契合與諮商效能之關係。臺灣師範大學教育心理與輔導學系學位論文。2012。1-102。
  12. 翁韶翊(2013)。自閉症兒童與機器寵物之互動行為研究初探。臺中科技大學多媒體設計系碩士班學位論文。2013。1-197。
  13. 陳奕方(2014)。以消費者的資源角度分析新舊通訊科技的區位競爭。中正大學傳播學系電訊傳播研究所學位論文。2014。1-148。
  14. 葉駿妤(2015)。即時通訊軟體已讀不回行為之研究。中原大學資訊管理研究所學位論文。2015。1-117。
  15. 游逸惠(2017)。大學生人際依附風格、回覆預期與情緒反應之相關研究-以LINE已讀不回情境為例。淡江大學教育心理與諮商研究所碩士班學位論文。2017。1-137。