Title

什麼是再現?跨學門觀點初探

Translated Titles

What Is "Representation"? An Interdisciplinary Search for Its Definition

DOI

10.30386/MCR.199907_(60).0004

Authors

方孝謙(Shiaw-Chian Fong)

Key Words

聚合 ; 組合 ; 再現 ; 指涉 ; 喻格 ; Paradigm ; Representation ; Reference ; Syntagm ; Trope

PublicationName

新聞學研究

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

60期(1999 / 07 / 01)

Page #

115 - 148

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

為釐清現階段歐美學界對再現及其相關範疇的討論,俾供參加國科會整合計畫之傳播學者及一般人文社會學界人士參考,本文從定義再現,為聯繫實在與意義兩個層面的象徵系統出發,就哲學、史學、民族誌討論、與傳播社會學中學者引人爭議的著作,以實在、再現、與意義之基本範疇加以組織與評析。哲學者帶給我們對再現的新認識,一方面是符號元素,或者透過彼此交換傳送相似或相反的意義;或者組合其他符號形成更高一層的意義之結構原則。另一方面是語句透過關涉說話者及其經驗世界而彰顯主觀意義的指涉原則。史學者與民族誌學者則帶給我們視雙重敘事為主要再現系統的重要性。敘事的雙重性,首先依指涉原則,牽引歷史敘事或民族誌的讀者認同所讀之物勾勒的實相;其次又依結構原則,帶領讀者進入作者與其共享的想像世界。而共享的基礎,則在不同文化獨擅之不同的喻格意識(有隱喻、轉偷、提喻、及諷喻的差別)。在澄清敘事雙重性如何具現實在、再現、與意義之間的關係之後,我們以敘事框架解讀一位傳播社會學者的詮釋民族誌-製造新聞。我們發現,作者「資本主義社會現狀的維持,有賴新聞工作與專業精神的運作」之主旨,乃是建立在「網」的隱喻及以部分喻示全體的提喻之上。

English Abstract

To help clarify the meaning and theories of representation for interested social scientists and, specifically, the communication scholars who have joined an integrated project of the National Science Council, ROC, we begin by defining the word as a symbolic system connecting both reality and meaning. We then use reality, representation, and meaning as basic categories by means of which we organize and critique relevant recent discussions from western philosophy, history, forum on ethnography, and sociology of communication. Philosophers bring to us, on the one hand, the structural principle that words create objective meaning by the nature of both their similarity and proximity, and on the other, the reference principle that by referring internally to a speaker and externally to the speaker's world, sentences convey her subjective meaning. Based on the two principles, historians and ethnographers further highlight the importance of a dual narrative as a system of representation. Narrative's duality manifests first in referring its readers to the empirical world that its author describes according to the reference principle and second in sharing the readers with the imaginary world that the author creates according to the structural principle. Here, in Hayden Whilte's view, the shared imaginary world is based on one of the four overarching tropic consciousnesses (metaphoric, metonymic, synecdochic, and ironic) that capture the essence of a specific culture. After clarifying how the dual narrative concretizes the complex relationships among reality, representation, and meaning, we apply the narrative framework to. the reading of an interpretive ethnography, sociologist Gaye Tuchman's Making News. We find that her thesis, that newswork and press professionalism legitimatize the status quo, is actually born out by two tropes: a metaphor of ”net,” as in her use of the news net and the web of facticity, and a synecdoche that constitutes her ethnography as a representation of ”the American press' point of view.”

Topic Category 社會科學 > 傳播學
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