Translated Titles

Analysis, Prediction, and Control of the Artificial Cover Ratio in Cities in Taiwan




呂罡銘(Kang-Ming Lu);林憲德(Hsien-Te Lin);孫振義(Chen-Yi Sun);劉正千(Cheng-Chien Liu);陳瑞鈴(Ruey-Ling Cheng)

Key Words

人造表面覆蓋率 ; 地表不透水率 ; 綠覆率 ; 福爾摩沙衛星二號 ; 綠屋頂 ; Artificial cover ratio ACR ; Impervious surface ratio ISR ; Green cover ratio GCR ; FORMOSAT-2 ; Green roof



Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

38卷2期(2011 / 06 / 30)

Page #

171 - 195

Content Language


Chinese Abstract

人造表面覆蓋率(artificial cover ratio, ACR)主要用於解析都市熱平衡、都市熱島現象、都市擴張現象與都市生態環境等相關課題,而地表不透水率(impervious surface ratio, ISR)主要用於評估地表逕流量與都市洪水現象,許多研究亦以ISR評估ACR相關課題。本研究試圖釐清兩者的定義與差異性,提出ACR與ISR之關係式;另一方面,應用遙測影像分類法,估算台北市、台中市、台南市與高雄市各行政區之土地覆蓋組成、ACR、綠覆率(green cover ratio, GCR)、藍覆率(blue cover ratio, GCR)與藍綠覆率(blue and green cover ratio, BGR)等資料,有效樣本數為37個,並彙整各市政府統計要覽資料,進行ACR迴歸分析,提出四項ACR單迴歸公式與兩項ACR複迴歸公式,作為都市規劃者在描述、預測與控制都市ACR相關工作之參考。與ACR呈正相關的因子主要有ln(人口密度),而呈現負相關的有GCR、BGR以及林野、耕地與公園面積比。本研究建議進行都市規劃與設計時,留設適當的都市藍綠帶面積比,以維持良好的物理環境與生態環境品質;在新訂或通盤檢討都市計畫,可參考本研究所提出的ACR迴歸式,以有效預測與控制都市ACR;在建築管制的層面,建議推廣綠屋頂政策,以降低都市人造面覆蓋率,進而達到都市降溫與基地保水等目標。

English Abstract

The artificial cover ratio (ACR) is used mainly to analyze urban heat balance, the urban heat island phenomenon, urban sprawl phenomenon, and urban eco-environment. The impervious surface ratio (ISR) is commonly used to assess urban water runoff, urban flooding and other issues associated with the ACR. This study indentifies differences between the ACR and ISR, and presents novel equation for deriving the ACR and ISR. The satellite remote sensing method is used to estimate land cover components in each district in Taipei, Taichung, Tainan, and Kaohsiung cities. Land cover data for 37 districts are obtained. Statistical data from local governments were used in ACR regression analysis. Four regression equations and two multi-regression equations are presented to help urban planners and government officials describe, predict, and control the ACR in urban areas. To maintain a suitable physical and ecological environment in urban areas, defining a suitable ratio of urban green space to blue-system areas is very important. When making or revising an urban plan, ACR regression equations are very useful for predicting or controlling the ACR. In the field of building control, a roof garden policy can reduce the ACR, cool urban air temperature and reduce the imperviousness of urban surfaces.

Topic Category 工程學 > 土木與建築工程
工程學 > 市政與環境工程
  1. 林子平、何友鋒、楊鴻銘(2005)。都市地表不透水率之預估與分析:以台中市為例。都市與計劃,32(3),333-353。
  2. 林子平、林憲德、李仁豪(2001)。台南市都市環境透水性能實測解析。都市與計劃,28(2),211-235。
  3. 林憲德、呂罡銘、孫振義、劉正千、何明錦(2008)。應用衛星遙測與影像分類技術估算台南市地表不透水率。都市與計劃,35(2),123-139。
  4. 林憲德、孫振義、李魁鵬、郭曉青(2005)。台南地區都市規模與都市熱島強度之研究。都市與計劃,32(1),83-97。
  5. 孫振義、林憲德(2006)。台南地區都市熱島強度全年變動之研究。都市與計劃,33(1),51-68。
  6. 國家太空中心(2009),福爾摩沙衛星二號影像基本資料,「國家太空中心網站」,http://www.nspo.org.tw/2008c/projects/project2/instrument.htm,(2009 年6 月8 日)。
  7. 台中市政府(2008),「台中市中華民國九十七年度統計年報」,台中:台中市政府。
  8. 台北市政府(2008),「台北市中華民國九十七年度統計年報」,台北:台北市政府。
  9. 台南市政府(2006),「台南市中華民國九十五年度統計要覽」,台南:台南市政府。
  10. 高雄市政府(2008),「高雄市中華民國九十七年度統計年報」,高雄:高雄市政府。
  11. Arnold, C. L.,Gibbons, C. J.(1996).Impervious surface coverage - The emergence of a key environmental indicator.Journal of the American Planning Association,62(2),243-258.
  12. Baric, B.,Kontic, J. K.,Pajac, I.(2008).Influence of the green cover as ecological infrastructure on the vineyard insect complex.Cereal Research Communications,36(1),35-38.
  13. Bodamer, D.(2001).New satellite maps pinpoint storm-water runoff.Civil Engineering,71(7),33-33.
  14. Calera, A.,Martinez, C.,Melia, J.(2001).A procedure for obtaining green plant cover: Relation to NDVI in a case study for barley.International Journal of Remote Sensing,22(17),3357-3362.
  15. Carlson, T. N.(2004).Analysis and prediction of surface runoff in an urbanizing watershed using satellite imagery.Journal of the American Water Resources Association,40(4),1087-1098.
  16. Chang, C. H.,Liu, C. C.,Wen, C. G.,Cheng, I. F.,Tam, C. K.,Huang, C. S.(2009).Monitoring reservoir water quality with Formosat-2 high spatiotemporal imagery.Journal of Environmental Monitoring,11(11),1982-1992.
  17. Chormanski, J.,Van De Voorde, T.,De Roeck, T.,Batelaan, O.,Canter, F.(2008).Improving distributed runoff prediction in urbanized catchments with remote sensing based estimates of impervious surface cover.Sensors,8(2),910-932.
  18. Congalton, R. G.,Green, K.(1999).Assessing the Accuracy of Remotely Sensed Data: Principle and Practices.Boca Raton:Lewis Publishers.
  19. Farooq, S.,Ahmad, S.(2008).Urban sprawl development around aligarh city: A study aided by satellite remote sensing and GIS.Photonirvachak-Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing,36(1),77-88.
  20. Fung, T.,Siu, W.(2000).Environmental quality and its changes, an analysis using NDVI.International Journal of Remote Sensing,21(5),1011-1024.
  21. Jennings, D. B.,Jarnagin, S. T.,Ebert, D. W.(2004).A modeling approach for estimating watershed impervious surface area from national land cover data 92.Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing,70(11),1295-1307.
  22. Kato, S.,Yamaguchi, Y.(2005).Analysis of urban heat-island effect using ASTER and ETM+Data: Separation of anthropogenic heat discharge and natural heat radiation from sensible heat flux.Remote Sensing of Environment,99(1-2),44-54.
  23. Kato, S.,Yamaguchi, Y.(2007).Estimation of storage heat flux in an urban area using ASTER data.Remote Sensing of Environment,110(1),1-17.
  24. Kato, S.,Yamaguchi, Y.,Liu, C. C.,Sun, C. Y.(2008).Surface heat balance analysis of Tainan City on March 6, 2001 using ASTER and Formosat-2 data.Sensors,8(9),6026-6044.
  25. Lillesand, T. M.,Kiefer, R. W.,Chipman, J. W.(2004).Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation.New York:John Wiley & Sons.
  26. Liu, X.,Ren, L.,Yuan, F.,Singh, V. P.,Fang, X.,Yu, Z.,Zhang, W.(2009).Quantifying the effect of land use and land cover changes on green water and blue water in northern part of China.Hydrology and Earth System Sciences,13(6),735-747.
  27. Lu, D. S.,Weng, Q. H.(2006).Use of impervious surface in urban land-use classification.Remote Sensing of Environment,102(1-2),146-160.
  28. Lu, D. S.,Weng, Q. H.,Li, G. Y.(2006).Residential population estimation using a remote sensing derived impervious surface approach.International Journal of Remote Sensing,27(16),3553-3570.
  29. Martinuzzi, S.,Gould, W. A.,Gonzalez, O. M. R.(2007).Land development, land use, and urban sprawl in Puerto Rico integrating remote sensing and population census data.Landscape and Urban Planning,79(3-4),288-297.
  30. Maselli, F.,Conese, C.,Petkov, L.,Gilabert, M. A.(1992).Use of Noaa-Avhrr Ndvi data for environmental monitoring and crop forecasting in the Sahel- Preliminary-results.International Journal of Remote Sensing,13(14),2743-2749.
  31. Ong, B. L.(2003).Green plot ratio: An ecological measure for architecture and urban planning.Landscape and Urban Planning,63(4),197-211.
  32. Pang, W. T.,Fok, H. S.,Iz, H. B.(2008).Mapping impervious surface areas from GIS planimetric data.Survey Review,40(308),108-115.
  33. Ridd, M. K.(1995).Exploring a V-I-S (Vegetation-Impervious Surface-Soil) model for urban ecosystem analysis through remote-sensing- Comparative anatomy for cities.International Journal of Remote Sensing,16(12),2165-2185.
  34. Rosenfield, G. H.,Fitzpatrick-Lins, K.(1986).A coefficient of agreement as a measure of the matic classification accuracy.Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing,52(2),223-227.
  35. Rouse, J. W.,Haas, R. W.,Schell, J. A.,Deering, D. W.,Harlan, J. C.(1974).Monitoring the Vernal Advancement and Retrogradation (Green-wave effect) of Natural Vegetation.Washington, DC:NASA.
  36. United Nations(1996).Urban and Rural Areas: 1996.New York:United Nations.
  37. Xian, G.,Crane, M.(2006).An analysis of urban thermal characteristics and associated land cover in Tampa Bay and Las Vegas using Landsat satellite data.Remote Sensing of Environment,104(2),147-156.
  38. Xiao, J. F.,Moody, A.(2005).A comparison of methods for estimating fractional green vegetation cover within a desert-to-upland transition zone in central New Mexico, USA.Remote Sensing of Environment,98(2-3),237-250.
  39. Zeng, H.,Sui, D. Z.,Li, S. J.(2005).Linking urban field theory with GIS and remote sensing to detect signatures of rapid urbanization on the landscape: Toward a new approach for characterizing urban sprawl.Urban Geography,26(5),410-434.
  40. 林憲德、陳冠廷、郭曉青(2001)。台灣中型都市熱島現象與土地利用之觀測解析。規劃學報,28,47-64。
  41. 陳順宇(2009)。迴歸分析。台北:三民書局。
Times Cited
  1. 呂罡銘(Kang-Ming Lu);林憲德(Hsien-Te Lin);張子瑩(Tzu-Yin Chang);孫振義(Chen-Yi Sun)(2013)。夏季臺北都市區域土地覆蓋與地表輻射熱平衡之關係。都市與計劃。40(4)。385-412。