Title

解嚴前後台灣都市政治的再檢視(1986-1992):網絡觀點下的台中市都市發展

Translated Titles

Re-examining Taiwan's Urban Politics before and after the Lifting of Martial Law (1986-1992): Urban Development in Taichung from a Network Perspective

DOI

10.6128/CP.41.1.1

Authors

王光旭(Guang-Xu Wang);熊瑞梅(Ray-May Hsung)

Key Words

政策網絡 ; 社會網絡 ; 都市政治 ; 都市菁英 ; 台中都市發展 ; 地方派系 ; Policy network ; Social network ; Urban politics ; Urban elites ; Taichung urban development ; Local faction

PublicationName

都市與計劃

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

41卷1期(2014 / 03 / 31)

Page #

1 - 41

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

本研究的重點在於透過網絡分析中結構對等的分析方法,並以台中市在解嚴前後的都市發展為案例,對過去台灣歷史轉折關鍵時期都市政治與發展的研究進行重新的梳理與對話。作者針對在1986到1992年間參與重要都市發展事件的78個都市菁英的四個網絡資料:都市事務討論網絡、信任關係網絡、技術諮商網絡、和資源動員網絡,整合成一個多重的網絡進行分析,以結構對等分析法找出四種社會網絡的隱藏(latent)結構位置,並深入討論都市菁英的權力結構與都市發展價值觀的差異。分析結果顯示與過去強調都市成長機器的研究結果有些許差異:一、當時的都市菁英不全然以都市成長意識為都市發展的主導方向,市政府的行政部門與市長間對於都市發展方向不見得一致;二、台中市都市發展網絡呈現了以市政府的行政部門與市長為核心的網絡結構,而學者專家在都市發展的意識型態與網絡中的位置與核心團體呈現對立的局面;三、從發展趨勢來看,自1986年起,台中市都市菁英的價值觀開始強調地方分權與接受民眾參與,台中市的都市政權在解嚴後愈來愈走向多元化與複雜化的治理機制。

English Abstract

This study analyzes the power distribution in urban politics before and after the lifting of martial law and explores the development values of urban elites through social network analysis of structural equivalence. For resource dependency analysis, this study used data from four policy networks (urban affair discussion, trust, technical advice, and resource exchange) that were collected from 78 urban elites and 8 critical urban development events in Taichung City. Analytical results show that (1) urban growth is not a dominant developmental direction for local elites in Taichung City. (2) The core of the urban development policy network is occupied by Block 2, the administrative sector in the Taichung City Government; the mayor is the most powerful block in urban development policy and scholars are isolated and located at the periphery of the policy network. (3) Finally, since actors in different positions accept the ideas of citizen participation and decentralization, the urban regime in Taichung City after the lift of martial law has become increasingly diverse and dynamic.

Topic Category 工程學 > 土木與建築工程
工程學 > 市政與環境工程
Reference
  1. 王光旭(2008)。政策網絡的行動體系分析:以台中工業區聯外道路案為例。政治科學論叢,37,151-210。
    連結:
  2. 熊瑞梅、王光旭(2012)。政策網絡中的對偶互動及其解釋因素:以台中市都市發展政策的菁英網絡為例,1986-1992。政治科學論叢,51,1-50。
    連結:
  3. Hanneman, R. A. and Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to social network methods (free introductory textbook on social network analysis), University of California Riverside, http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/nettext/, (Oct. 10, 2011).
  4. Borgatti, S. P.,Everett, M. G.(1992).Notions of position in social network analysis.Sociological Methodology,22,1-35.
  5. Burt, R. S.(1987).Cohesion versus structural equivalence as a basis for network subgroups.Sociological Methods and Research,7(2),189-212.
  6. Castells, M.(1983).The City and the Grassroots.Berkeley:University of California Press.
  7. Castells, M.(1977).The Urban Question.Cambridge:MIT Press.
  8. Friedkin, N. E.(1984).Structural equivalence and cohesion explanations of social homogeneity.Sociological Methods and Research,12(3),235-261.
  9. Galaskiewicz, J.(1979).Exchange Networks and Community Politics.London:SAGE.
  10. Galaskiewicz, J.(1989).Interorganizational networks mobilizing action at the metropolitan Level.Networks of Power: Organizational Actors at the National, Corporate, and Community Levels,Hawthorne:
  11. Gerber, E. R.,Henry, A.,Lubell, M.(2010).The political logic of local collaboration in regional planning in California.The 2010 Duke Networks Conference,Carbondale:
  12. Hawley, A. H.(1950).Human Ecology.New York:Ronald Press.
  13. Healey, P.(2007).Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies: Towards a Relational Planning for Our Times.London:Routledge.
  14. Hodge, G. A.,Greve, C.(2007).Public-private partnerships: an international performance review.Public Administration Review,67(3),545-558.
  15. Jessop, B.(1991).State Theory: Putting Capitalist States in Their Place.University Park:The Pennsylvania State University Press.
  16. Jessop, B.(1997).Capitalism and its future: Remarks on regulation, government and governance.Review of International Political Economy,4(3),561-581.
  17. Judge, D.(ed.),Stoker, G.(ed.),Wolman, H.(ed.)(1995).Theories of Urban Politics.London:SAGE.
  18. Kaboolian, L.(1998).The new public management: Challenging the boundaries of the management vs. administration debate.Public Administration Review,58(3),189-193.
  19. Kaufman, R. R.(1974).The patron-client concept and macro-politics and problems.Comparative Studies in Society and History,16(3),284-308.
  20. Kettl, D. F.(1993).Sharing Power: Public Governance and Private Markets.Washington, DC:The Brookings Institution.
  21. Kickert, W. J. M.(ed.),Klijn, E. H.(ed.),Koppenjan, J. F. M.(ed.)(1997).Managing Complex Network: Strategies for the Public Sector.London:Sage Publication.
  22. Knoke, D.,Kuklinski, J. H.(1982).Network Analysis.London:SAGE.
  23. Knoke, D.,Pappi, F. U.,Broadbent, J.,Tsujinaka, Y.(1996).Comparing Policy Networks: Labor Politics in the U.S., Germany, and Japan.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
  24. Knoke, D.,Yang, S.(2008).Social Network Analysis.London:SAGE.
  25. Koppenjan, J. F. M.,Klijn, E. H.(2004).Managing Uncertainties in Networks: A Network Approach to Problem Solving and Decision Making.New York:Routledge.
  26. Krackhardt, D.(1992).The strength of strong ties: The importance of philos in organizations.Networks and Organizations: Structure, Form, and Action,Boston:
  27. Laumann, E. O.,Knoke, D.(1987).The Organizational State: Social Choice in National Policy Domains.Madison:The University of Wisconsin Press.
  28. Laumann, E. O.,Marsden, P. V.(1982).Microstructural Analysis in interorganizational systems.Social Networks,4(4),329-348.
  29. Laumann, E. O.,Marsden, P. V.(1979).The analysis of oppositional structures in political elites: Identifying collective actors.American Sociology Review,44(5),713-732.
  30. Laumann, E. O.,Marsden, P. V.,Galaskiewicz, J.(1977).Community-elite influence structures: Extension of a network approach.American Journal of Sociology,83(3),594-631.
  31. Laumann, E. O.,Pappi, F. U.(1976).Networks of Collective Action: A Perspective on Community Influence Systems.Amsterdam:Academic Press.
  32. Logan, J. R.,Molotch, H. L.(1987).Urban Fortunes: The Political Economy of Place.Berkeley:University of California Press.
  33. Marsden, P. V.,Laumann, E. O.(1977).Collective action in a community elite: Exchange, influence resources, and issue resolution.Power, Paradigms, and Community Research,London:
  34. Marsh, D.(ed.),Rhodes, R. A. W.(ed.)(1992).Policy Networks in British Government.Oxford:Clarendon.
  35. Mollenkopf, J. H.(1983).The Contested City.Princeton:Princeton University Press.
  36. Molotch, H.(1976).The city as a growth machine.American Journal of Sociology,82(2),309-330.
  37. Nadel, S. F.(1957).The Theory of Social Structure.New York:Free Press.
  38. Park, R. E.(1952).Human Communities: The City and Human Ecology.New York:Free Press.
  39. Savitch, H. V.(1991).Post-Industrial Cities-Politics and Planning in New York, Paris, and London.New Jersey:Princeton University Press.
  40. Scott, J.(2000).Social Network Analysis: A Handbook.London:SAGE.
  41. Stone, C. N.(1989).Regime Politics: Governing Atlanta, 1946-1988.Lawrence:University Press of Kansas.
  42. Stone, C. N.(ed.),Sanders, H. T.(ed.)(1987).The Politics of Urban Development.Lawrence:University of Kansas Press.
  43. Wang, G. X.(2011).A debate on transforming local governance in the UK: Is partnership a better way?.Journal of Politics and Law,4(1),73-83.
  44. Wasserman, S.,Faust, K.(1994).Social Network Analysis.New York:Cambridge University Press.
  45. Wellman, B.(ed.),Berkowitz, S. D.(ed.)(1988).Social Structures: A Network Approach.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
  46. White, H. C.,Boorman, S. A.,Breiger, R. L.(1976).Social structure from multiple networks: I. blockmodels of roles and positions.American Journal of Sociology,81(4),1384-1446.
  47. Whitt, J. A.(1982).Urban Elites and Mass Transportation: The Dialectics of Power.New Jersey:Princeton University Press.
  48. Whitt, J. A.(1989).Organizational ties and urban growth.Networks of Power: Organizational Actors at the National, Corporate, and Community Levels,Hawthrne:
  49. 文崇一(1989)。社區的權力結構。台北:東大圖書公司。
  50. 王光旭(2005)。都市計畫審議機制之制度分析:以台中市為例。行政暨政策學報,41,35-80。
  51. 王光旭(2009)。博士論文(博士論文)。國立政治大學公共行政學系。
  52. 王振寰(1998)。誰統治台灣?轉型中的國家機器與權力結構。台北:巨流出版社。
  53. 林佳蓉(1999)。碩士論文(碩士論文)。國立成功大學政治經濟學研究所。
  54. 邱瑜瑾(1996)。博士論文(博士論文)。東海大學社會學系。
  55. 陳東升(1995)。金權城市:地方派系、財團與台北都會發展的社會學分析。台北:巨流出版社。
  56. 曾水亭(1988)。碩士論文(碩士論文)。國立台灣大學建築與城鄉研究所。
  57. 雷壹閑(1994)。透視全台灣最肥的單位。財訊,142,80-83。
  58. 雷壹閑(1994)。都委會、建築商是最佳拍檔。財訊,142,86-88。
  59. 熊瑞梅(2001)。都市事件行動體系的分析:以台中市為例。國立台灣大學社會學刊,29,59-110。
  60. 熊瑞梅(1995)。,台北:行政院國家科學委員會。
  61. 熊瑞梅(1992)。,台北:行政院國家科學委員會。
  62. 熊瑞梅、邱瑜瑾(1995)。都市政治菁英的社會資源與社會圈:以台中市為例。台灣社會學研究所的回顧與前瞻論文集,台中:
  63. 賴志彰(1997)。博士論文(博士論文)。國立台灣大學建築與城鄉研究所。
  64. 羅家德(2005)。社會網分析講義。北京:社會科學文獻出版社。
Times Cited
  1. 林彥彤(2015)。商議空間:「促進民間參與」的地上權開發。臺灣大學社會學研究所學位論文。2015。1-227。
  2. 羅 真(2015)。國家、權力菁英與主流媒體共構的城市發展想像-以都市更新報導為例。中正大學傳播學系電訊傳播研究所學位論文。2015。1-145。
  3. 白育慈(2016)。派系的持續與變遷:以台中市地方派系為例。中正大學政治學系學位論文。2016。1-114。