Relationships among Basketball Referee's Incorrect Call, Recovery Types, and Customers' Satisfactions
高三福(San-Fu Kao)；龐雲漢(Yun-Han Pang)；謝承甫(Cheng-Fu Hsieh)；陳忠強(Chung-Chiang Chen)
服務失誤 ； 服務補救 ； 觀眾 ； 裁判法 ； service failure ； service recovery ； spectators ； referee officiating
|Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication||
47卷1期（2014 / 03 / 01）
103 - 114
Purpose: Examining the relationships among basketball referee's incorrect-call and recovery strategies on customers' satisfactions with referees and satisfactions with game officials. Three studies were conducted. Methods: In study 1 focus group interview was use. The 4 participants were coaches, referee, and player who were basketball experts from different backgrounds and experiences. Scenarios were used in study 2 and study 3. Participants in study 2 and study 3 were 389 and 280, respectively. Scenarios were surveyed in group-random and the manipulating check was used for collecting the valid samples. Results: In study 1 the types of incorrect-call could be categorized as mistakes-in-violations, mistakes-in-fouls, and mistakes-in-free-throws. The magnitudes of incorrect-call could be categorized as influence the win/loss of the game and the conflicts that interrupted the play. The recovery strategies could be identified as move-on, makeup-calls, correction-immediately, and acknowledgement-publicly after play. MANOVA was used for analysis the data in study 2 and study 3. The results in study 2 revealed that the interaction of incorrect-call types and recovery strategies were not significant. In study 3 the interactions of incorrect-call magnitude and recovery strategies were significant different in satisfactions. Conclusion: The relationships between basketball referee's incorrect call recovery and customers' satisfactions were not changed by the incorrect-call types, but by the magnitude. Correction-immediately after an incorrect-call was the best recovery strategy, especially in a severity incorrect-call situation.