Title

四國海軍因應長江上游航行安全問題採取的聯合行動(1920-25)

Translated Titles

Joint Naval Action of Four Powers in Response to Shipping Securities on Upper Yangtze, 1920-25

DOI

10.29457/SJH.200912.0004

Authors

應俊豪(Chun-Hao Ying)

Key Words

長江上游航行安全問題 ; 上海四國海軍會議 ; 砲艦外交 ; 排外運動 ; 布爾什維克宣傳 ; 華盛頓會議 ; Shipping security problems on upper Yangtze ; Conference of 4 powers' naval commanders in Shanghai ; Gunboat diplomacy ; Anti-foreign movement ; Bolshevik propaganda ; Washington Conference System

PublicationName

東吳歷史學報

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

22期(2009 / 12 / 01)

Page #

169 - 224

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

1920年代上半期長江上游地區航行安全問題日益嚴重,處於華盛頓會議體制下的英、美、法、日等四國列強,擬採取聯合軍事行動來確保外人航運安全。此類軍事行動外表看似強勢,但受限於現實環境,如軍艦老舊數量不足、內部歧見,以及軍事行動的欠缺協調不一致等,在在均使得列強口頭上宣稱的行動,遠遠超過實際情形。除了外交聯合警告外,強勢的軍事作爲、聯合海軍示威行動是否真能有效壓制長江上游地區土匪與軍隊的持續攻擊輪船,達成護航或保護僑民的重責大任,猶有很大的疑問。加上1920年代上半期湖北、四川戰爭不斷,內政秩序瓦解,遍地兵匪,直接挑戰與考驗著四國駐華海軍的實力與威信。尤有甚者,強化的聯合軍事行動,就某種角度來說,難免有侵犯中國主權之嫌。外國軍艦高調地巡邏於中國內陸水域,甚至派遣水兵登上輪船或陸地執行保護任務,極易觸碰到中國民族主義思惟的敏感神經,認爲有損國格,引爲奇恥大辱。而軍艦與商船士兵的任意反擊行動,有時傷及無辜,反倒引起當地居民極大的民怨。如果再加上有心人士的刻意宣傳與渲染,挑起民族仇外情緒,也可能引爆新一波抵制或排外行動。換言之,軍事壓制行動尚未奏效之際,新的仇恨民怨又被燃起。華盛頓會議體制在長江上游地區的有效性也備受質疑。

English Abstract

Shipping security problem on upper Yangtze is getting worse in the first half of 1920s. Under the Washington Conference System, Britain, United States, France and Japan try to take a joint military action to protect foreign interest. This kind of action seems to be strong but does not work effectively due to the circumstances, such as old and scarce gunboats, internal quarrels, and the discord of military cooperation. It is doubted whether the highhanded joint naval demonstration of foreign powers can really stop Chinese soldiers and bandits from firing on foreign steamers. Besides, civil wars in Szechuan and Hupei also challenge foreign navies' ability and prestige. Furthermore, the enhanced naval interference may violate Chinese sovereignty for some parts. Especially foreign gunboats' patrolling on internal waters in a high profile, deploying blue-jacks on merchant vessels, or sending marines on land to carry out protecting mission will definitely trigger Chinese nationalism's indignation. Sometimes gunboats or blue-jacks on vessels may over react to the firing from ashore and incur innocent civilian casualties, that will result in local residents' wrath. If this kind of rage is agitated intentionally, hatred of foreigners will increase and spread out, and a new wave of anti-foreign sentiment and boycott follows. In other word, the joint exhibition of foreign naval force may foment new national resentment instead of solving shipping security problems. Thus, the validity of Washington Conference System is also doubted.

Topic Category 人文學 > 歷史學
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