Translated Titles

The Relation of Hotel Food/Beverage Employees' Empowerment Cognitions to Service-Oriented Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A View of Leader-Member Exchange Theory




黃品全(Pin-Chyuan Hwang)

Key Words

領導者與成員交換理論 ; 賦能認知 ; 服務導向組織公民行為 ; 社會交換 ; leader-member exchange theory LMX ; empowerment cognitions ; service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors ; social exchange



Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

10卷4期(2004 / 12 / 01)

Page #

19 - 37

Content Language


Chinese Abstract

所謂賦能,即是啟迪與培養成員對自身工作的四項認知:意義性、自我決定、影響力以及自我效能(Spreitzer, 1995)。本研究從領導者與成員交換理論及社會交換的觀點,說明在旅館業中,餐飲服務人員與上司社會交換關係對其四項賦能認知的作用,以及此作用表現在其忠誠、服務傳遞以及參與等三類「服務導向組織公民行為」上的回饋效果。在以24位台北國際觀光旅館餐飲服務人員為對象的實證分析中,採用結構模式分析工具AMOS 4.0的檢驗發現,與上司社會交換關係品質對成員的賦能認知能發揮不同的作用;並分別透過此賦能認知的中介效果對三類服務導向組織公民行為產生不同的影響。研究結果,並進一步的釐清了成員與上司的隸屬交換關係品質、賦能認知以及服務導向組織公民行為各構面之間的關聯性。

English Abstract

Empowerment has been conceptualized as an individual's four increased cognitions proximal to his or her work motivation: meaning, self-determination, impact and self-efficacy (Spreitzer, 1995). With its focus on the employees' cognitions of empowerment, the theoretical structure of this study was considered from the point of view of leader-member exchange and social exchange theories. Hypotheses suggested that the empowerment cognitions mediated the relation between quality of members' vertical dyad exchange and three service-oriented forms of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs): loyalty, service delivery and participation. By utilizing AMOS as a statistical tool, the results of a field investigation of 249 F&B service employees in Taipei international tourist hotels showed that the quality of members' vertical dyad exchange shed different effects on empowerment cognitions, each of which would then have unique predictive ability of the three forms of service-oriented OCBs. Through the empirical examination, some implications were discussed.

Topic Category 人文學 > 地理及區域研究
社會科學 > 體育學
  1. Anderson, J. C.,Gerbing, D. W.(1998).Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach.Psychological Bulletin,103(3),411-423.
  2. Bateman, T. S.,Organ, D. W.(1983).Job satisfaction and the good soldier: The relationship between affect and employee "citizenship".Academy of Management Journal,26,587-595.
  3. Bauer, T. N.,Green, S. G.(1996).Development of leader-member exchange: A longitudinal test.Academy of Management Journal,39(6),1538-1567.
  4. Baum, T. G.(1995).Managing Human Resources: In the European Tourism and Hospitality Industry-A Strategic Approach.London:Chapman & Hall.
  5. Bettencourt, L. A.,Meuter, M. L.,Gwinner, K. P.(2001).A comparison of attitude, personality and knowledge predictors of service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors.Journal of Applied Psychology,86(1),29-41.
  6. Blau, P.(1964).Exchange and power in social life.New York:Wiley.
  7. Borman, W. C.,Motowidlo, S. J.,N. Schmitt,W. C. Borman (Eds.)(1993).Personnel selection in organizations.
  8. Chebat, J. C.,Akollias, P.(2000).The impact of empowerment on customer contact employees` roles in service organizations.Journal of Service Research,30(1),66-81.
  9. Conger, J.,Kanungo, R.(1988).The Empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice.The Academy of Management Review,13(3),471-428.
  10. Corsun, D. L.,Enz, C. A.(1999).Predicting psychological empowerment among service workers: The effect of support-based relationships.Human Relations,52(2),205-224.
  11. Crampton, S.,Wagner, J.(1994).Percept-percept inflation on micro organizational research: An investigation of prevalence and effect.Journal of Applied Psychology,79,67-76.
  12. Dansereau, F.,Graen, G.,Haga, J.(1975).A vertical dyad linkage approach to leadership within formal organizations: A longitudinal investigation of the role making process.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance,13,46-78.
  13. Deluga. R. J.(1998).Leader-Member Exchange Quality and Effectiveness Ratings.Group & Organization Management,23(2),189-216.
  14. Dienesch, R. M.,Liden, R. C.(1986).Leader-member exchange model of leadership: A critique and further development.Academy of Management Review,11(3),618-634.
  15. Eisenberger, R.,Armeli, S.,Rexwinkel, B.,Lynch, P.,Rhoades, L.(2001).Reciprocation of perceived organizational support.Journal of Applied Psychology,86(1),42-51.
  16. Enz, C. A.,Siguaw, J. A.(2000).Best practices in human resources.Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly,41(1),48-63.
  17. Enz, C. A.,Siguaw, J. A.(2000).Best practices in service quality.Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly,41(5),20-29.
  18. Eylon, D.(1998).Understanding empowerment and resolving its paradox.Journal of Management History,4(1),16-28.
  19. Ference, G.(2001).Improving organizational performance: Using survey-driven databases.Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly,42(2),12-25.
  20. Fitzgerald, L. F.,Drasgow, F.,Hulin, C.L.,Gelfand, M. J.,Magley, V. J.(1997).Antecedents and consequences of sexual harassment in organizations: A test of an integrated model.Journal of Applied Psychology,82,578-589.
  21. Fornell, C.,Larcker, D.(1981).Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error.Journal of Marketing Research,18,39-50.
  22. Fulford, M. D.,Enz, C. A.(1995).The impact of empowerment on service employees.Journal of Managerial Issues,7(2),161-175.
  23. George, J. M.(1991).State or trait: Effects of positive mood on prosocial behaviors at work.Journal of Applied Psychology,76,299-307.
  24. George, J. M.,Brief, A. P.(1992).Feeling good-doing good: A conceptual analysis of the mood at work-organizational spontaneity relationship.Psychological Bulletin,112,310-329.
  25. Gomez, C.,Rosen, B.(2001).The leader-member exchange as a link between managerial trust and employee empowerment.Group and Organization Management,26(1),53-69.
  26. Gouldner, A. W.(1960).The norm of reciprocity.American Sociological Review,25,165-167.
  27. Greenberger, D. B.,Strasser, S.,Cummings, L. L.,Dunham, R. B.(1986).The Impact of Personal Control on Performance and Satisfaction.Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,43(1),29-51.
  28. Hackman, J. R.,Oldham, G. R.(1980).Work Redesign.MA:Addison-Wesley.
  29. Hartline, M. D.,Ferrell, O. C.(1996).The management of customer-contact service employees: An empirical investigation.Journal of Marketing,60,52-70.
  30. Hartline, M. D.,Maxham. J. G.,McKee, D. O.(2000).Corridors of influence in the dissemination of customer-oriented strategy to customer contact service employees.Journal of Marketing,64,35-50.
  31. Hickman, J.,Mayer, K. J.(2003).Service quality and human resource practices: A theme park case study.International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management,15(2),116-119.
  32. Hui, C.,Law, K. S.,Chen, Z. X.(1999).A structural equation model of the effects of negative affectivity, leader-member exchange, and perceived job mobility on in-role and extra-role performance: A Chinese case.Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,77(1),3-21.
  33. Katz, D. L.(1964).The motivational basis of organizational behavior.Behavior Science,9,131-133.
  34. Keller, T.,Dansereau, F.(1995).Leadership and empowerment: A social exchange perspective.Human Relations,48(2),127-145.
  35. Kline, J. B.,Sulsky, L. M.,Rever-Moriyama, S. D.(2000).Common method variance and specification errors: A practical approach to detection.The Journal of Psychology,134(4),401-421.
  36. Konczak, L. J.,Stelly, D. J.,Trusty, M. L.(2000).Defining and measuring empowering leader behaviors: Development of an upward feedback instrument.Educational and Psychological Measurement,60(2),301-313.
  37. Lam, Terry.(2003).Leader-member exchange and team-member exchange: The roles of moderators in new employees` socialization.Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research,27(1),48-68.
  38. Liden, R. C.,Graen, G.(1980).Generalizability of the vertical dyad linkage model of leadership.Academy of Management Journal,23,451-465.
  39. Liden, R. C.,Wayne, S. J.,Sparrowe, R. T.(2000).An examination of the mediating role of psychological empowerment on the relations between the jobs, interpersonal relationships, and work outcomes.Journal of Applied Psychology,85(3),407-416.
  40. Linden, R. C.,Maslyn, J. M.(1998).Multidimensionality of leader-member exchange: An empirical assessment through scale development.Journal of Management,24(1),43-72.
  41. MacKenzie, S. B.,Podsakoff, P. M.,Fetter, R.(1993).The impact of organizational citizenship behavior on evaluations of sales performance.Journal of Marketing,57,70-80.
  42. Maurer, T. J.,Pierce, H. R.,Shore, L. M.(2002).Perceived beneficiary of employee development activity: A three-dimensional social exchange model.Academy of Management Review,27(3),432-444.
  43. Moorman, R. H.,Blakely, G. L.(1995).Individualism-collectivism as an individual difference predictor of organizational citizenship behavior.Journal of Organizational Behavior,16,127-142.
  44. O`Reilly, C.,Chatman, J.(1986).Organizational commitment and psychological attachment: The effects of compliance, identification, and internalization on prosocial behavior.Journal of Applied Psychology,71,492-499.
  45. Organ, D. W.,Konovsky, M.(1989).Cognitive versus affective determinants of organizational citizenship behavior.Journal of Applied Psychology,74,157-164.
  46. Parasuraman, A.,Zeithaml, V. A.,Berry, L. L.(1988).Communication and control processes in the delivery of service quality.Journal of Marketing,52(April),35-48.
  47. Peccei, R.,Rosenthal, P.(1997).The antecedents of employee commitment to customer service: Evidence from a UK service context.The International Journal of Human Resource Management,8(1),66-86.
  48. Podsakoff, P. M.,MacKenzie, S. B.(1997).The impact of organizational citizenship behavior on organizational performance: A review and suggestions for future research.Human performance,10,133-151.
  49. Podsakoff, P. M.,MacKenzie, S. B.,Paine, J. B.,Bachrach, D. G.(2000).Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research.Journal of Management,26(3),513-563.
  50. Robbins, S.P.(2002).The truth about managing people and nothing but the truth.New York:Prentice Hall.
  51. Scandura, T. A.,Graen, G. B.(1984).Moderating effects of initial leader-member exchange status on the effects of a leadership intervention.Journal of Applied Psychology,69,428-436.
  52. Schneider, B.,Bawen, D. E.(1993).The service organizations: Human resources management is crucial.Organizations Dynamics,21,39-52.
  53. Schneider, B.,Bawen, D. E.,George, W. R.,Marshall, C. E. (Eds.)(1984).Development new services.Chicago:American Marketing Association.
  54. Settoon, R. P.,Bennett, N.,Liden, R. C.(1996).Social exchange in organizations: Perceived organizational support, leader-member exchange, and employee reciprocity.Journal of Applied Psychology,81(3),219-227.
  55. Smith, C. A.,Organ, D. W.,Near, J. P.(1983).Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents.Journal of Applied Psychology,68,653-663.
  56. Sparrowe, R. T.(1994).Empowerment in the hospitality industry: An exploration of antecedents and outcomes.Hospitality Research Journal,17,51-37.
  57. Sparrowe, R.T.(1995).The effects of organizational culture and leader-member exchange on employee empowerment in the hospitality industry.Hospitality Research Journal,18(3),95-109.
  58. Spinelli, M. A.,Canavos, G. C.(2000).Investigating the relationship between employee satisfaction and guest satisfaction.Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly,41(6),29-33.
  59. Spreitzer, G. M.(1995).Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation.Academy of Management Journal,38(5),1442-1465.
  60. Spreitzer, G. M.(1996).Social structural characteristics of psychological empowerment.Academy of Management Journal,39,483-504.
  61. Spreitzer, G. M.,De Janasz, S. C.,Qyinn, R. E.(1999).Empowered to lead: the role of psychological empowerment in leadership.Journal of Organizational Behavior,20,511-526.
  62. Thomas, K. W.,Velthouse, B. A.(1990).Cognitive elements of empowerment: An `interpretative` model of intrinsic task motivation.Academy of Management Review,15(4),666-681.
  63. Van Dyne, L.,Graham, J.W.,Dienesch, R. M.(1994).Organizational citizenship behavior: Construct redefinition, measurement, and validation.Academy of Management Journal,37,765-802.
  64. Williams, L.,Anderson, S.(1991).Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship in-role behaviors.Journal of Management,17,601-617.
  65. 黃品全(2003)。顧客接觸人員與上司、同事關係對賦能及服務工作之影響-社會交換的觀點。管理評論,22(4),57-80。
Times Cited
  1. 儲秀文(2013)。餐旅業員工敬業度、工作滿意度與工作績效關聯性之研究。淡江大學企業管理學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2013。1-55。 
  2. 陳琮文(2015)。消防機關領導風格對組織承諾影響之研究─以領導成員交換關係(LMX)為中介變項。長榮大學高階管理碩士在職專班(EMBA)學位論文。2015。1-89。 
  3. 劉峻瑋(2013)。內部行銷、員工幸福感與服務導向組織公民行為關係之研究 - 以台灣南區觀光飯店為例。長榮大學經營管理研究所學位論文。2013。1-132。 
  4. 劉柏松(2012)。僕人式領導、組織公民行為、工作績效關係之研究─以南台灣觀光飯店為例。長榮大學經營管理研究所學位論文。2012。1-109。 
  5. 林岳欣(2009)。大學學務主管僕人式領導、部屬工作士氣及服務導向組織公民行為關係模式之研究-以主管幽默為干擾變項。長榮大學高階管理碩士在職專班(EMBA)學位論文。2009。1-228。 
  6. 彭偉倫(2012)。性別角色在印象管理、關係品質與工作績效關係的調節分析。屏東科技大學企業管理系所學位論文。2012。1-78。 
  7. 李欣怡(2005)。探討台灣觀光旅館內部行銷、心理依附與服務導向組織公民行為關係之研究。高雄餐旅學院餐飲管理研究所學位論文。2005。1-134。
  8. 楊淑忻(2007)。台灣銀行業僕人式領導、領導與成員交換關係、組織認同及服務導向公民行為關係模式之研究。長榮大學經營管理研究所(博)學位論文。2007。1-249。
  9. 向昱玫(2009)。醫院主管倫理領導、員工道德承諾與服務導向公民行為關係模式之研究-以倫理氣候認知為干擾變項。長榮大學經營管理研究所(博)學位論文。2009。1-161。
  10. 吳政築(2010)。餐飲從業人員知覺主管僕人式領導與員工服務導向公民行為關係之研究:以領導與成員交換關係為調節變項。朝陽科技大學企業管理系學位論文。2010。1-97。
  11. 黃盈嘉(2012)。閒置空間再利用之研究-華山1914文化創意產業園區之個案分析。臺灣師範大學社會教育學系學位論文。2012。1-230。
  12. 劉靜靜(2016)。護理人員職場友誼、工作壓力與工作績效關係之研究。義守大學醫務管理學系學位論文。2016。1-65。