Title

選舉制度與印尼女性國會代表權的發展:開放性名單比例代表制、選區規模、與多黨競爭的交互作用初探

Translated Titles

Electoral System and the Development of Female Parliamentary Representation in Indonesia: the Interactive Effects of Open-list PR, District Magnitude, and Multi-party Competition

DOI

10.6683/TPSR.202006_24(1).0002

Authors

孫采薇(Tsai-Wei Sun)

Key Words

印尼 ; 女性國會代表權 ; 配額制度 ; 開放性名單比例代表制 ; Indonesia ; female parliamentary representation ; quota system ; open-list PR

PublicationName

台灣政治學刊

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

24卷1期(2020 / 06 / 01)

Page #

67 - 108

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

當代民主國家在政治決策過程中,是否兼顧兩性代表平衡,是其政權合法性很重要的來源,並且也是外界評判是否為「良善治理」的一項重要標準。有鑑於女性過往在社會經濟乃至於政治層面的相對弱勢地位,許多國家也嘗試以不同的制度設計,保障女性在國會中的代表席次。在兩性平等的世界風潮下,印尼自1998年以降,在國會選舉法與政黨法歷經數次沿革,試圖提升該國女性國會與各級議會議員的比例。本文試圖從1998年至2019年的五屆大選結果,觀察印尼女性政治參與在國會選舉層面上的進展,並初步探討影響該國女性代表比例的主要制度性因素。不同於傳統認為開放性名單比例代表制會造成黨內競爭與不利弱勢女性候選人的理論,印尼在小選區規模與多黨均勢競爭的情況下,採取開放性名單模式,反而使得未列於名單前段的女性候選人,仍能有機會當選。

English Abstract

From the perspective of political inclusiveness and accountability, how to ensure the adequate participation of women in public affairs and include their interests in the legislative process are important issues in contemporary democracies. Many countries have also tried to increase female representation in politics via various institutional arrangements. Under the global trend toward gender equality, Indonesia has undergone several legal reforms to raise the proportion of female candidates in the People's Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat, DPR) elections in the post- Suharto era. Using data covering the period from 1998 to the 2019 general elections, this paper intends to examine the participation of women as candidates and as elected representatives in the DPR elections, to highlight the candidacy barriers impeding the entry of women into politics, and to discuss the role of electoral systems as a means of increasing women's political representation in Indonesia. Unlike the traditional theory that the open-list PR will lead to intraparty competition and disadvantage female candidates, in Indonesia within the context of small district magnitude and multi-party competition, open-list PR gives female candidates who are not at the front of the party list a chance to be elected.

Topic Category 社會科學 > 政治學