Title

以多重類比探究兒童電流心智模式之改變

Translated Titles

Using Multiple Analogies for Investigating Changes of Children's Mental Models of Electricity

DOI

10.6173/CJSE.2002.1002.01

Authors

邱美虹(Mei-Hung Chiu);林靜雯(Jing-Wen Lin)

Key Words

多重類比 ; 心智模式 ; 電流 ; Multiple Analogies ; Mental Model ; Electricity

PublicationName

科學教育學刊

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

10卷2期(2002 / 06 / 01)

Page #

109 - 134

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

由於電流概念的高度抽象性及複雜性,致使學生對此概念無法建立正確的心智模式。Spiro, Feltovich, Coulson 和Anderson (1989)認為欲教授如此複雜的新概念時,「多重類比」是一解決之道。據此,本研究選取國小四年級學生32名,隨機、平均分配至對照組、單一類比組、相似類比組及互補類比組,以探究多重類比教學過程中,學生心智模式改變的情形及其原因。研究結果顯示: 1.多重類比有助於學生電學概念的學習,且互補多重類比組於能量概念的學習上優於其他三組,而相似多重類比組於通路概念的學習成就上雖略高於其他類比組,但並未達顯著差異。 2.經晤談後,學生於簡單及串聯通路的電流心智模式共分六大類,而並聯則有五大類。 3.三類比實驗組的教材明顯較對照組易於提供具體表徵增進後設覺察,進而造成心智模式的轉變。但無論何種教學,學生對於電流經燈泡後衰減的概念仍難以克服。 4.影響學生電流心智模式的因素,主要為:(1)視電池為一儲存槽應發出固定電流或燈泡應獲得固定電流;(2)資源消耗模式;(3)分配電流的觀點;(4)順序推理模式;(5)節點的影響;(6)電路圖形的表徵;(7)封閉通路概念。這些因素顯示學生傾向於將電的世界視為一物質世界,並因而形成學習的預設。

English Abstract

Due to high abstractness of electric current and its ”mixed” role between matter and energy, students' understanding of this concept is always incomplete and incorrect. Spiro, Feltovich, Coulson and Anderson (1989) suggested that the use of multiple analogies might open an avenue for learning high complexity of science concepts. Thirty-two fourth graders were randomly assigned to a control group or there treatment groups (namely a group with one single analogy, a group with similar analogies, and a group with complementary analogies). The results of this study are as follows: First, it shows that multiple analogies are helpful to learning of concepts in electricity, in particular, the students in the complementary analogies group outperr form than the students in other groups in learning energy concepts in electricity. The students in similar analogies group outperform the other analogies group, but not reaching at significant level. Second, the researchers identify six mental models of series and simple circuits and five parallel ones. Third, although three experimental groups provide concrete analogies for students to link with abstract concepts, students still hardly overcome their incorrect mental model about current decreasing after through a bulb. Fourth, the main causes influencing students' mental models, are 1. treating battery as a tank, which supplies consistent electrical current, 2. source-consumer model, 3. the view of repartition current, 4. sequential-inference model, 5. the effect of nodes, 6. the representations of circuit diagram, and 7. the concepts of closed circuit. These causes indicate that students tend to treat the electric world as a matter concept, thus forming the presupposition of learning the concepts of electricity.

Topic Category 社會科學 > 教育學
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