Title

法及其限度:宋代法律訴訟中的斷案哲學與抵牾判決

Translated Titles

Law and Its Limits: Judicial Philosophy and Conflicting Verdicts in Song Dynasty Legal Cases

DOI

10.29624/CHJH.200706.0008

Authors

柏清韻(Bettine Birge)

Key Words
PublicationName

興大歷史學報

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

18期(2007 / 06 / 01)

Page #

185 - 192

Content Language

繁體中文

English Abstract

Much fine research done in China and other countries has established the advanced and sophisticated nature of the Song legal system. Scholars have used case records and other documents to show in detail changes in the written law over time, the operation of the trial system, the application of the appeals process, and the enforcement of dynastic laws. Much attention has been directed at ascertaining what the law actually said, so as to determine state support for such things as women's property rights, patriarchal authority within the family, inheritance practices, etc. This paper will examine instead the different ways in which judges interpreted the law. It will explore the area of legal practice beyond the reach of codified law, where judges had to exercise personal judgment to arrive at a final verdict. All judges claimed to base their decisions on current dynastic law; nevertheless, judges frequently disagreed with each other, and cases were often overturned on appeal. Such conflicting verdicts can be attributed to differences between individual judges' opinions, values, and priorities, what in today's American legal practice is called ”judicial philosophy.” In this essay, I will explore differences in judicial philosophy in the Song and how these differences could result in conflicting verdicts. A review of Song cases reveals a number of different approaches to the law. Some judges placed high priority on enforcing codified law as they understood it, even if this went against their own values. Others, most notably those who promoted Learning of the Way Confucianism (daoxue 道學), show a willingness to disregard the law to promote what they regarded as a higher morality. Still others gave priority to reaching a decision that all parties could accept, based on considerations of human feelings. Song judges themselves articulated some of these differences and discussed in their writings the challenge of balancing various factors in reaching a decision. All of this points to the complexity of Song society and the contention and disagreement that existed over many issues. In this regard the Song legal system faced challenges remarkably similar to those faced by legal systems around the world today.

Topic Category 人文學 > 歷史學
Reference
  1. 名公書判清明集
  2. 名公書判清明集
  3. 名公書判清明集
  4. 名公書判清明集
  5. 名公書判清明集
  6. 名公書判清明集
  7. 名公書判清明集
  8. 名公書判清明集
  9. 名公書判清明集
  10. 名公書判清明集
  11. 名公書判清明集
  12. 名公書判清明集
  13. 名公書判清明集
  14. 名公書判清明集
  15. 名公書判清明集
  16. 名公書判清明集
  17. 名公書判清明集
  18. 名公書判清明集
  19. 勉齋先生黃文肅公文集
  20. 勉齋集
  21. 清明集
  22. Bettine Birge、柏清韻(2002)。Women, Property, and Confucian Reaction in Sung and Yuan China (960-1368)。New York:Cambridge University Press。
  23. de Pee, Christian(1997)。Cases of the New Terrace: Canon and Law in Three Southern Sung Verdicts。Journal of Sung-Yuan Studies,27,27-61。
  24. McKnight,Liu(trans.)(1999).The Enlightened Judgments: Ch`ing-ming Chi, The Sung Dynasty Collection.Albany:State University of New York Press.
  25. Miyazaki Ichisada,Jerome Cohen,Randle Edwards,Fu-mei Chang Chen(1980).Essays on China`s Legal Tradition.Princeton, N. J.:Princeton University Press.
  26. Xu Dao-lin(1972).Sung Studies Newsletter.
  27. 王雲海、鄧廣銘、漆俠編(1992)。國際宋史研討會論文選集。河北大學出版社。
  28. 佐立治人之、梅原郁編(1993)。中國近世の法制と社會。京都:京都大?人文科?研究。
  29. 宋代官箴研讀會編(2001)。宋代社會與法律-〈名公書判清明集〉討論。臺北:東大圖書公司。
  30. 宮崎市定(1975)。宋元時代の法制と裁判機構-元典章成立の時代的社會的背景。アジア史研究,4,170-305。
  31. 宮崎市定(1954)。宋元時代の法制と裁判機構-元典章成立の時代的社會的背景。東方学報
  32. 郭東旭、鄧廣銘、漆俠編(1992)。國際宋史研討會論文選集。河北大學出版社。
  33. 陳智超(1987)。名公書判清明集。中華書局。
  34. 陳智超(1984)。明刻本《明公書判清明集》述略。中國史研究,4,152。
Times Cited
  1. 張斐怡(2009)。蒙元時期的家庭與法律。清華大學歷史研究所學位論文。2009。1-149。
  2. 鹿智鈞(2011)。清朝旗人的法律地位。臺灣師範大學歷史學系學位論文。2011。1-381。
  3. 王信杰(2012)。元代刑罰制度研究──以五刑體系為中心。臺灣師範大學歷史學系學位論文。2012。1-119。
  4. 薛名秀(2016)。貞節、國家與地方社會:清代節孝祠研究。臺灣大學歷史學研究所學位論文。2016。1-106。