Translated Titles

The Effects of the Muscular Pre-Tension Strategy of Lower Extremity on Swimming Grab Start Performance




李靜雯(Ching-Wen Lee)

Key Words

生物力學 ; 抓台出發 ; 出發台時間 ; 肌群預先張力muscular pre-tension ; biomechanics ; grab start ; block time ; muscular pre-tension



Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

8卷3期(2006 / 09 / 30)

Page #

129 - 138

Content Language


Chinese Abstract

本研究的目的在研究下肢肌群預先張力策略的使用對於游泳抓台出發表現的影響。受試者為8位訓練優良的選手(年齡20±2.5歲,身高1.76±0.03公尺,體重71±8.5公斤,泳齡10.3±3.3年),教導使其在出發台初期表現三種下肢肌群出發策略:伸展-收縮循環(stretch-shortening cycle)、沒有預張的純粹收縮(purely concentric with no muscular pre-tension)及有預張的純粹收縮(purely concentric with muscular pre-tension)。研究器材是以二台Peak-Performance高速攝影機(120Hz)和一台Kistler(600Hz)測力板同步的擷取責料。運動學的參數是經由Peak Motus 7.0軟體進行影片的數位化分析求得,地面反作用力則由Kistler Bio Ware得知,最後以單因子重複量數變異數分析進行出發的結果參數考驗(α=.05)。研究結果顯示,下肢肌群有預張的純粹收縮策略明顯比伸展-收縮循環策略有較快的出發台時間及較大的起跳水平速度,但在最大水平地面反作用力、最大垂直地面反作用力、飛行時間、飛行距離、重心起跳垂直速度、重心入水水平速度和重心入水垂直速度上並沒有明顯差異。根據本研究的結果,建議在出發台初期使用肌群預先張力的純粹收縮策略,如此不但可以得到縮短離台時間的益處,同時又不會影響游泳抓台出發的其它表現結果。

English Abstract

This study investigated the effects of the muscular pre-tension of lower extremity on swimming grab start performance. Eight well-trained subjects participated in this study. The data of the subjects showed that: Ages 20±2.5 yr, heights 1.76±0.03 m, body masses 71±8.5 kg, and training years 10.3±3.3 yr (mean ±S.D.). They were instructed to perform three strategies (the stretch-shortening cycle, and purely concentric with and without muscular pretension) of lower extremity during the initial block phase in grab start. Two Peak-Performance high-speed video cameras at 120 Hz and one Kistler force plate (600 Hz) mounted on the starting block were synchronized to collect the data. The analyzed system used in this study were Peak Motus 7.0 and Bio Ware softwares. The differences among three muscular strategies of start were analyzed with repeated one-way ANOVA. The statistic significant level was set at α=.05. The results showed that the block time was significantly shorter and the horizontal velocity of take-off was larger in the muscular pre-tension than in the stretch-shortening cycle strategy. There was no difference in max horizontal ground reaction force, max vertical ground reaction force, flight time, flight distance, vertical takeoff velocity, horizontal entry velocity, and vertical entry velocity among three strategies. Based on the results of the present study, it has been suggested that using the muscular pre-tension strategy during the initial block phase in grab start could gain some benefits of decreasing time.

Topic Category 社會科學 > 體育學
  1. Arellano, R., Pardillo, S., Fuente, B., & Garcia, F.(2000).A system to improve the swimming start technique using force recording, timing and kinematic analysis.In Y. Hong & D. P. John (Eds.), Proceedings 0f18th International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports, Vol. 2,2,609-612.
  2. Blanksby, B., Nicholson, L., & Elliott, B.(2002).Biomechanical analysis of the grab, track and handles swimming starts: An intervention study.Sports Biomechanics,1(1),11-24.
  3. Bowers, J. E.,Cavanagh, P. R.,L. Lewillie and J. P. Clarys (Eds.)(1975)., Swimming If. International Series on Sport Science, Vol. 2.Baltimore:University Park Press.
  4. Breed, R. V. P., & McElroy, G. K.(2000).A biomechanical comparison of the grab, swing and track starts in swimming. Journal of Human Movement Studies,39,277-293.
  5. Dempster, W. T(1955).WADC Technical Report (TR-55-159). OH: Wright-Patterson Air Force Base.Wright-Patterson Air Force Base.
  6. Gambrel, D. W., Blanke, D., Thigpen, K., & Mellion, M. B.(1991).A biomechanical comparison of two relay starts in swimming.Journal of Swimming Research,7(2),23-30.
  7. Gehisen, G M., & Wingfield, J.(1998).Biomechanics analysis of competitive swimming starts and spinal cord injuries.Journal of Swimming Research,13,23-30.
  8. Jensen, R. C., Warren, B., Laursen, C., & Morrissey, M. C(1991).Static pre-load effect on knee extensor isokinetic concentric and eccentric performance.Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise,23(1),10-14.
  9. Kovaleski, J. E., Heitman, R. H., Trundle, T. L., & Gilley, W. F(1995).Isotonic preload versus isokinetic knee extension resistance training.Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise,27(6),895-899.
  10. Pearson, C. T., McElroy, G. K., Blitvich, J. D., Subic, A., & Blanksby, B. A.(1998).A comparison of the swimming start using traditional and modified starting blocks.Journal of Human Movement Studies,34,49-66.
  11. Pearson, C., McElroy, K., & Blanksby, B(1999).Muscular pre-tension and jumping: Implications for dive starts.Proceeding of 17th International Society of Biomechanics in Sports,Australia:
  12. Tis, L.L., Perrin, D. H., Weltman, A., Ball, D. W., & Gieck, J. H.(1993).Effect of preload and range of motion on isokinetic torque in women.Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise,25,1038-1043.
  13. Van Ingen Schenau, G. J., Bobbert, M. F., & de Haan, A.(1997).Does elastic energy enhance work and efficiency in the stretch-shortening cycle?.Journal of Applied Biomechanics,13,389-415.
  14. Voigt, M., Simonsen, E. B., Dyhre-Poulsen, P., & Klausen, K.(1995).Mechanical and muscular factors influencing the performance in maximal vertical jumping after different prestretch loads.Journal of Biomechanics,28(3),293-307.
  15. Waishe, D. W., Wilson, G J., & Ettema, G. J. C.(1998).Stretch-shorten cycle compared with isometric preload: Contributions to enhanced muscular performance.Journal of Applied Physiology,84(1),97-106.
  16. Welcher, R. L., Hinrichs, R. N., & George, T. R.(1999).An analysis of velocity and time characteristics of three starts in competitive swimming.Proceeding of 17th International Society of Biomechanics,Canada:
  17. Wilson, D. S., & Marino, G W.(1983).Kinematic analysis of three starts.Swimming Technique,19(4),30-34.
Times Cited
  1. 李建勳(Chien-Hsun Lee);戴至禾(Chih-Ho Tai);戴國輝(Huo-Hui Tai);陳羿揚(Yi-Yang Chen);涂瑞洪(Jui-Hung Tu)(2013)。優秀蹼泳選手出發動作之生物力學分析。體育學報。46(3)。221-230。