Title

主編評論:競爭的哲學觀談運動:推廣世界大學運動競技賽會

Translated Titles

Philosophical View of Sport Competition: Globalizing and Universalizing Participation to University Sport

DOI

10.5297/ser.1902.editorial

Authors

王室富(Shih-Fu Wang);郭家驊(Chia-Hua Kuo)

Key Words
PublicationName

大專體育學刊

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

19卷2期(2017 / 06 / 30)

Page #

i - vi

Content Language

繁體中文;英文

Chinese Abstract

證明自我卓越:競技運動已成為蓬勃發展的產業,在人類經濟活動逐漸占據顯著比例。競技運動產業的重要內在驅動力來自於展現個人與國家的卓越競爭力意識的需求 (English, 2017),在一個和平娛樂而非血腥作戰的場合。世大運即將在臺北舉辦,對大部分的人而言,運動的現代意義包括社會互動、趣味、挑戰、體能自信、個人學習與健康 (Beni, Fletcher, & Ní Chróinín,2016)。然而,運動比賽具有競爭本質,在這個內在特性下,對於參與的大學生有什麼意義有必要進行更深入的討論,並透過運動賽會活動來傳播正面價值來強化參與。問題的引導:從大學生與家長的角度,學生進入大學的主要目的是希望獲得對未來能提高社會存活品質的技能與習慣。更明白的講,就是要在個人教育的最後階段能讓自己不被高度競爭的社會淘汰外,還能提高個人生存品質。因此,經營國際運動競技活動要問的第一個問題將會是在大學運動競技作為一個教育場合與學生未來社會存活關聯在哪?換言之,參與大學運動競技在教育上對學生的未來能有什麼幫助?第二個問題是全球化對學生未來的重要性在哪?類似像世大運這樣的教育平臺是否為創造正面價值有益學生未來的場合? 這些都是推廣大學運動競技價值的重要主題。競爭是人類天性:透過體能來展示個人與國家的卓越競爭力是人性的一部分。在生物範疇內,競爭力越強越有機會生存。競爭是生物間基於資源有限性面對挑戰適應環境不斷進化的必經歷程,取得資源的獨享權力。由歷史上瞭解,弱者經常招致強者攻擊而承受痛苦與滅絕,強者繼續繁衍相同遺傳特質成為後代的大多數。因此,基於活在競爭環境,個人的卓越表現似乎是必然的,但生物競爭的缺點是容易消滅多元性(例如戰爭與掠奪),然而個人也絕無法全能,多元專業合作才是社會文明大幅進步的主因。綜觀人類歷史,由戰爭行為產生無數痛苦經驗,均來自我們競爭的天性。然而,殘酷的競爭者卻經常被視為英雄 (Hanke et al.,2015)。運動競技可促進個體超越自我能力極限,並創造一個正當場合導引我們的競爭天性朝向娛樂休閒活動的方向宣洩,並且在感受競爭的同時給與年輕參與者體驗與思考人類正面價值的機會,學習尊重他人,俾利在未來競爭激烈的社會中生存。競爭場合投射正面價值:大學生處於即將進入高度競爭的社會的學習場合,未來將透過專業技能與形形色色的自由行為來追求最佳的個人存活品質。與他人個別競爭或透過合作來競爭將無可避免的是未來的生活現實。運動競技是一種以遵守規則為基礎的人類活動。它是大學生養成終身正面行為的理想場所。更精準的說,在大學生出社會前在一個競爭場合建立遵守規則與倫理規範的習慣是大學運動競技的存在價值。人類之所以能不斷自我改善生存的質量是因為我們能「發展出一個以規則為基礎的自由貿易環境,讓不同天分與專業的個人或團體能快速的貢獻的貢獻所長,並且能以法規排除任何影響合作的負面行為」。人類各式各項的隨機行為可被粗分為「競爭行為」、「合作行為」。競爭行為經常為對手帶來痛苦經驗,甚至滅絕。在社會演化過程,人類逐漸學會合作的好處,即透過群體合作抵禦外來的競爭的現實。人類有能力建立法治來排除有害合作的可能自由行為,並且建立倫理規範來鼓勵任何有助於合作的正面行為,是所有社會能提高生存品質的主因。我們經常見證到法治無法正常落實、倫理道德無法建立的國家,人民生活品質通常較差。運動競技無疑是形成正面競爭哲學觀,讓學生體驗學習的理想場所。全球化的意義:全球化的運動競技場域可以是推廣與學習尊敬多元性,為更大規模分工合作的社會鋪路來增加人類生活品質,全球性的分工合作意味著每個社會合作參與者能最小的心力貢獻獲得最多的報酬,個體自我超越提升競爭力有利自我生存發展外,在文明社會法治規則下,多元分工集結眾人貢獻度,更能抵銷衝突,使社會整體生存品質極大化,最終極的目標為全球化。全球大規模合作意味著即使對每件高品質專業服務與產品付出所求的回報很少,也能透過眾多消費者累積大量收入回報。大學運動競技是在競爭社會投射全球化與多元化正面價值的理想平臺。結論:大學運動競技是學生在進入高度競爭職場前學習正面價值、增加自己生存力的理想學習場合。主辦者可思考將遵守規則、尊重多元、促進提高合作的所有正面行為、排除影響團隊合作的負面行為納入運動家精神內容,透過競技體育促進教育向上提升,利用賽會推廣來植入有益社會的核心價值給年輕參與者。

English Abstract

Demonstration of Excellence: Sport becomes an increasingly prosperous industry, which occupied a significant part of global economic activity. Twenty-ninth Summer Universiade will soon be held in Taipei. One inherent driving force of this prosperity comes from a demand of demonstrating personal and national excellence (English, 2017), in an entertainment fashion rather than bloody war setting. Today, sport is intuitively meaningful to most of us as it brings social interaction, fun, challenge, motor competence, personally relevant learning, and health among participants in a peaceful fashion (Beni, Fletcher, & Ní Chróinín, 2016). However, sport is competitive in nature. Under this framework, what is the value of University Sport that benefits student participants requires deliberate discussion in order to project positive value to fortify universal participation. The Guiding Questions: In views of students and parents, the primary purpose of becoming a college student is to acquiring necessary skills and habit to maximize student's own survival for the future. To be more specific, to successfully maximize survival quality is the primary goal for every individual during the end stage of education. Therefore, the first question regarding the value of university sports goes to what is the link between educational role of university sports and personal survival. One way of expressing this is "why university sports matters for your future?" Furthermore, why globalization is important for college students? Can university sport be an educational platform in projecting positive value that will benefit student's future? These are the core issues to be discussed in order to establish the value of university sports. Competition as a Human Nature: Demonstrating personal or national excellence by competition is part of human nature. In biological world, those best capable to compete within an environmental niche survive. From history, we have learned that weakness often invites attack by others, leading to pain and annihilation of people. Therefore, demonstration of personal excellence appears to be needed due to the structure of our competitive environment. One drawback of competition is the elimination of diversity, particularly in war setting, which could be harmful since in reality no individual can endow all types of talents and each of us has strength and weakness. We have learned numerous painful experiences from behaviors like "individual competition" or "cooperation-to-compete" against others in human history such as war and conquer with killing. However, winner is mostly been gloried as hero (Hanke et al., 2015). Sport can guide such inherent competitive instinct of human-being to entertainment and recreational setting, by offering a legitimate space for releasing human instinct, while leave us a chance to project positive values that may be instrumental for future career development of young college students living in a competitive society. Projecting Positive Value in a Competitive Setting: College student will soon enter a real competitive world to strive the best quality of life by employing professional skills with miscellaneous human behaviors. To compete or cooperate with others is unavoidable reality of their future life. Sport, as a rule-based competitive activity, can be an ideal education platform for those college students to establish lifetime positive behaviors. One reason that humans are able to extend the survival quality and quantity further is "our capability to develop a rule-based free-trading society in order to facilitate exchange of contributions among individuals with different talents while to eliminate negative behaviors that will reduce cooperation among them." Human random behaviors in a society can be roughly classified into two categories: competitive behaviors and cooperative behaviors. Competition often brings pain and annihilation to competitors. During social evolution, people gradually learn the benefit of cooperation into a group against outside competition and develops of "cooperation-to-compete strategy" to face the reality. Human efforts on establishing the rule of law in a society to eliminate all possible behaviors that undermines cooperativity and forming ethic code to promote behaviors that enhance cooperativity among people are the most important reason accounts for increasingly better quality of life in all societies. We frequently witness that low life quality of a society is often related to less enforcement of law and insufficient promotion of ethic code of individuals in their resided society. Sports competition is an ideal educational ground to develop the philosophical principle and practice regarding competition and cooperation for students. Globalization and Respecting Diversity Matter: Central to the "cooperation-to-compete" concept for survival, respecting diversity and globalization are something to be promoted and practiced in sports activity. In real life, globalization is crucial for human life quality as the benefit of getting more payoff with less effort via cooperation in a society can be maximized by increasing partner size. This means that cooperation at large scale will maximize survival benefit. University sport in world scale is a good place for globalization and projecting such positive value in a competition setting. Conclusion: University sports bring valuable educational opportunity for those young students learning positive value to strive their best quality of survival before entering a real competitive world. Defining sports personship by including rule compliance, respecting diversity, promoting behaviors that increases cooperativity, eliminating behaviors that undermines cooperativity, and promoting globalization are the positive values that organizer can consider to embed into a large sport event.

Topic Category 社會科學 > 體育學
Reference
  1. Beni, S.,Fletcher, T.,Ní Chróinín, D.(2016).Meaningful experiences in physical education and youth sport: A review of the literature.Quest
  2. English, C.(2017).Philosophy of sport: Key questions.Journal of the Philosophy of Sport,44(1),152-155.
  3. Hanke, K.,Liu, J. H.,Sibley, C. G.,Paez, D.,Gaines, S. O., Jr.,Gail, M.,Rosa, C.(2015)."Heroes" and "villains" of world history across cultures.PLoS One,10(2),e0115641.
Times Cited
  1. 吳季龍(Chi-Lung Wu)(2020)。跆拳道運動之運動倫理與教練領導。運動休閒管理學報。17(4)。12-24。