Title

The Morphosyntactic Typology of Oceanic Languages

Translated Titles

大洋洲語言之構詞及句法類型研究

Authors

Malcolm D. Ross

Key Words

大洋洲語言 ; 典型語言 ; 構詞及句法類型 ; 動詞上之主語標記 ; 動詞上之賓語標記 ; 及物化與去及物化的構詞型態 ; 領屬結構 ; 分句間關係 ; 主語功能 ; Oceanic languages ; canonic type ; typology ; morphosyntax ; verbal marking of subject ; verbal marking of object ; (de-)transitivising morphology ; possession ; interclausal relations ; function of subject

PublicationName

語言暨語言學

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

5卷2期(2004 / 04 / 01)

Page #

491 - 541

Content Language

英文

Chinese Abstract

本文旨在闡述部分大洋洲語言構詞及句法中之普遍特徵。從大洋洲語言豐富多樣之類型中,作者界定出一種在譜系上與地域上都極具代表性之「典型」語言型態。此型態為SVO詞序,並具有前置詞;主語反映於動詞的前綴或前附加詞;賓語則反映於動詞的後綴或後附加詞;動詞通常形成構詞上相關而配對出現的及物與不及物動詞組。某些語言中,這些動詞再分為兩類:主語不論在及物與不及物動詞中均為主事者的A-類,以及不及物動詞主語與及物動詞賓語均為受事者之U-。作者以此動詞分類作為背景,進一步討論大洋洲語言及物化與去及物化的構詞型態。典型大洋洲語言的領屬結構,分為「直接」與「間接」兩種。直接領屬結構用以標記不可分離之領屬關係,而必用表所有之量詞之間接領屬結構用以標記可分離之領屬關係。本文以針對典型大洋洲語言分句間關係之探討作結。作者指出,副詞分句與補語分句鮮有去語句化現象,而主語一般僅有語意上功能,而無追蹤指稱的語用功能。

English Abstract

The main goal of this paper is to describe some morphosyntactic characteristics that are common to a majority of Oceanic languages. Amidst the typological variety of Oceanic languages, the author defines a canonic language type, i.e., a type widely represented both genealogically and geographically. This type is SVO and has prepositions. Subjects are coreferenced by a prefix or proclitic to the verb, objects by a suffix or enclitic. Verbs often fall into morphologically related pairs with a transitive and an intransitive member. In some languages these verb pairs in turn fall into two classes. With A-verbs, the subject of both members is the Actor. With U-verbs, the subject of the intransitive is the Undergoer, which is to say, it corresponds to the object of the transitive. Against this background the (de-)transitivising morphology of Oceanic languages is described. Possession in the canonic language type takes two forms, direct and indirect. The direct construction encodes inalienable possession, the indirect (which entails a possessive classifier) encodes alienable possession. The paper finishes with a discussion of interclausal relationships in canonic languages. Adverbial and complement clauses display little desententialisation. It is also suggested that subjects in canonic languages generally have only a semantic function, not a reference-tracking function.

Topic Category 人文學 > 語言學
Reference
  1. Anderson, Stephen R.,Charles Li (ed.)(1976).Subject and Topic.New York:Academic Press.
  2. Arms, David G.(1974).Transitivity in Standard Fijian.Ann Arbor:University of Michigan.
  3. Arms, David G.(1974).Whence the Fijian transitive endings?.Oceanic Linguistics,12(2),503-558.
  4. Biggs, Bruce G.(1974).Some problems of Polynesian grammar.Journal of the Polynesian Society,83,401-426.
  5. Blust, Robert A.(1977).The Proto-Austronesian pronouns and Austronesian subgrouping: A preliminary report.University of Hawaii Working Papers in Linguistics,9(2),1-15.
  6. Blust, Robert A.,Elizabeth Zeitoun,Paul Jen-kuei Li (ed.)(1999).Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: Some issues in Austronesian comparative linguistics.Selected Papers from the Eighth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, Symposium Series of the Institute of Linguistics (Preparatory Office), No.1,Taipei:
  7. Bradshaw, Joel.(1993).Subject relationships within serial verb constructions in Numbami and Jabêm.Oceanic Linguistics,32(1),133-161.
  8. Bresnan, Joan,Sam A. Mchombo.(1987).Topic, pronoun and agreement in Chichêwa.Language,63,741-782.
  9. Bril, Isabelle.(2002).Langues et cultures du Pacifique 14.Paris and Leuven:Peeters.
  10. Bril, Isabelle,Françoise Ozanne-Rivierre. (eds).Complex Predicates in Oceanic Languages: Studies in the Dynamics of Binding and Boundness.Berlin:Mouton de Gruyter.
  11. Bugenhagen, Robert D.(1995).Pacific Linguistics C-101.Canberra:The Australian National University.
  12. Chung, Sandra.(1978).Case Marking and Grammatical Relations in Polynesian.Austin:University of Texas Press.
  13. Clark, Ross.(1976).Aspects of Proto-Polynesian Syntax.Auckland:Linguistic Society of New Zealand.
  14. Comrie, Bernard.,Winfred P. Lehmann (ed.)(1978).Syntactic Typology.Austin:University of Texas Press.
  15. Corston, Simon H.(1996).Pacific Linguistics B-113.Canberra:The Australian National University.
  16. Cristofaro, Sonia.(2003).Subordination: A Typological Study.Oxford:Oxford University Press.
  17. Croft, William.(2001).Radical Construction Grammar: Syntactic Theory in Typological Perspective.Oxford:Oxford University Press.
  18. Croft, William.(1991).Syntactic Categories and Grammatical Relations: The Cognitive Organisation of Information.Chicago:Chicago University Press.
  19. Crowley, Terry.(2002).Serial Verbs in Oceanic: A Descriptive Typology.Oxford:Oxford University Press.
  20. Crowley, Terry.(1987).Serial verbs in Paamese.Studies in Language,11,35-84.
  21. Davis, Karen.(2003).Western Solomons. Pacific Linguistics 534.Canberra:The Australian National University.
  22. Dempwolff, Otto.(1937).Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für Eingeborenen-Sprachen 17.Berlin:Dietrich Reimer.
  23. Dik, Simon C.(1997).The Theory of Functional Grammar, vol.1: The Structure of the Clause.Berlin:Mouton de Gruyter.
  24. Dixon, R. M. W.(1988).A Grammar of Boumaa Fijian.Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
  25. Dixon, R. M. W.(1991).A New Approach to English Grammar on Semantic Principles.Oxford:Clarendon.
  26. Dixon, R. M. W.(1979).Ergativity.Language,55,59-138.
  27. D'Jernes, Jeffrey,Lucille D`Jernes. n.d..Summer Institute of Linguistics.Ukarumpa:
  28. Dryer, Matthew S.(1992).The Greenbergian word order correlations.Language,68,81-138.
  29. Dryer, Matthew S.,Joan L. Bybee,John Haiman,Sandra A. Thompson (ed.)(1997).Essays on Language Function and Language Type, Dedicated to T. Givón.Amsterdam:John Benjamins.
  30. Durie, Mark.(1988).Verbal serialization and "verbal-prepositions" in Oceanic languages.Oceanic Linguistics,27(1),1-23.
  31. Early, Robert J.(1993).Nuclear layer serialization in Lewo.Oceanic Linguistics,32(1),65-93.
  32. Evans, Bethwyn.(1995).Reconstructing object markers in Oceanic languages. B.A. Honours thesis.Canberra:The Australian National University.
  33. Evans, Bethwyn.(2003).Pacific Linguistics 539.Canberra:The Australian National University.
  34. Evans, Bethwyn.(1997).The distribution of Proto Oceanic *-i..Paper presented at the Third International Conference on Oceanic Linguistics,New Zealand:
  35. Foley, William A.(1976).Comparative Syntax in Austronesian.Berkeley:University of California.
  36. Foley, William A.,Robert D. van Valin(1984).Functional Syntax and Universal Grammar.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
  37. Gibson, Jeanne D.,Stanley Starosta.,Philip Baldi (ed.)(1987).Linguistic Change and Reconstruction Methodology.Berlin:Mouton de Gruyter.
  38. Goddard, Ives.,Henk Aertsen,Robert J. Jeffers (ed.)(1993).Historical Linguistics 1989.Amsterdam:John Benjamins.
  39. Hamel, Patricia J.(1994).Pacific Linguistics C-103.Canberra:The Australian National University.
  40. Harrison, Sheldon P.(1976).A Mokilese Reference Grammar.Honolulu:University of Hawai`i Press.
  41. Heath, Jeffrey.(1975).Some functional relationships in grammar.Language,51,89-104.
  42. Hill, Deborah.(1992).Longgu Grammar.Canberra:The Australian National University.
  43. Hill, Deborah.,John Lynch,Malcolm Ross,Terry Crowley (ed.)(2002).The Oceanic Languages.Richmond, Surrey:Curzon Press.
  44. Hooper, Robin.,Andrew K. Pawley,Lois Carrington (ed.)(1985).Austronesian Linguistics at the 15th Pacific Science Congress, Pacific Linguistics C-88.Canberra:The Australian National University.
  45. Hopper, Paul J.,Sandra Thompson.(1980).Transitivity in grammar and discourse.Language,56,251-299.
  46. Hyslop, Catriona.(2001).Pacific Linguistics 515.Canberra:The Australian National University.
  47. Jauncey, Dorothy.(1997).A Grammar of Tamambo, the Language of Western Malo, Vanuatu.Canberra:The Australian National University.
  48. Jones, Alan A.(1998).Pacific Linguistics C-138.Canberra:The Australian National University.
  49. Keenan, Edward L.,Charles N. Li (ed.)(1976).Subject and Topic.New York:Academic Press.
  50. Kettle, Eleanor.(2000).A description of the verb phrase in Ganoqa: An Austronesian language of the Solomon Islands. B.A. Honours thesis.Canberra:The Australian National University.
  51. Kikusawa, Ritsuko.(1998).A formal analysis of the so-called 'passive' in Fijian.Journal of Asian and African Studies,56,113-140.
  52. Kikusawa, Ritsuko.(2003).A new view of the Proto-Oceanic pronominal system.Oceanic Linguistics,42(1),161-186.
  53. Klamer, Marian.(2002).Typical features of Austronesian languages in Central/Eastern Indonesia.Oceanic Linguistics,41(2),363-382.
  54. Kroeger, Paul.(1993).Phrase Structure and Grammatical Relations in Tagalog.Stanford:CSLI.
  55. Lee, Kee-dong.(1975).Kusaiean Reference Grammar.Honolulu:University of Hawai`i Press.
  56. Lehmann, Christian.,John Haiman,Sandra A. Thompson (ed.)(1988).Clause Combining in Grammar and Discourse.Amsterdam:John Benjamins.
  57. Lichtenberk, Frantisek.(1983).Oceanic Linguistics Special Publication.Honolulu:University of Hawai`i Press.
  58. Lichtenberk, Frantisek.,Andrew K. Pawley,Lois Carrington (ed.)(1985).Austronesian Linguistics at the 15th Pacific Science Congress.Canberra:The Australian National University.
  59. Lynch, John.(1998).Pacific Languages: An Introduction.Honolulu:University of Hawai`i Press.
  60. Lynch, John.(2000).Pacific Linguistics 507.Canberra:The Australian National University.
  61. Lynch, John.(1981).Melanesian diversity and Polynesian homogeneity: The other side of the coin.Oceanic Linguistics,20,95-129.
  62. Lynch, John,Malcolm D. Ross,Terry Crowley.(2002).The Oceanic Languages.Richmond, Surrey:Curzon Press.
  63. Lyons, John.(1977).Semantics.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
  64. Malcolm D. Ross,Andrew Pawley,Meredith Osmond (ed.)(1998).The Lexicon of Proto Oceanic: The Culture and Environment of Ancestral Oceanic Society, vol.1: Material Culture, Pacific Linguistics C-152.Canberra:The Australian National University.
  65. Mark Durie,Malcolm D. Ross (ed.)(1996).The Comparative Method Reviewed: Regularity and Irregularity in Language Change.New York:Oxford University Press.
  66. Nichols, Johanna.(1986).Head-marking and dependent-marking grammar.Language,62,56-119.
  67. Noonan, Michael.,Timothy Shopen (ed.)(1985).Language Typology and Syntactic Description, vol.2: Complex Constructions.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
  68. Palmer, Bill.(1999).A Grammar of the Kokota Language, Santa Isabel, Solomon Islands.Sydney:University of Sydney.
  69. Pawley, Andrew K.(1973).Some problems in Proto Oceanic grammar.Oceanic Linguistics,12(1),103-188.
  70. Pawley, Andrew K.,Jim Hollyman,Andrew Pawley (ed.)(1981).Studies in Pacific Languages and Cultures in Honour of Bruce Biggs.Auckland:Linguistic Society of New Zealand.
  71. Pawley, Andrew K.,Lawrence A. Reid,Paz Buenaventura Naylor (ed.)(1980).The evolution of transitive constructions in Austronesian.Austronesian Studies: Papers from the Second Eastern Conference on Austronesian Languages,Ann Arbor:
  72. Pawley, Andrew K.,Roger C. Green,M. Kelly (ed.)(1972).Studies in Oceanic Culture History.Honolulu:Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum.
  73. Pawley, Andrew K.,S. A. Wurm,D. C. Laycock (ed.)(1970).Pacific Linguistic Studies in Honour of Arthur Capell, Pacific Linguistics C-13.Canberra:The Australian National University.
  74. Pawley, Andrew K.,Timoci Sayaba.,J. H. C. S. Davidson (ed.)(1990).Pacific Island Languages: Essays in Honour of G. B. Milner.London and Honolulu:School of Oriental and African Studies and University of Hawai`i Press.
  75. Ross, Malcolm D.(1998).Possessive-like attribute constructions in the Oceanic languages of northwest Melanesia.Oceanic Linguistics,37(2),234-276.
  76. Ross, Malcolm D.(1998).Proto-Oceanic adjectival categories and their morphosyntax.Oceanic Linguistics,37(1),85-119.
  77. Ross, Malcolm D.,Amran Halim,Lois Carrington,S. A. Wurm (ed.)(1982).The development of the verb phrase in the Oceanic languages of the Bougainville region.Papers from the Third International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, vol.1: Currents in Oceanic, Pacific Linguistics C-74,Canberra:
  78. Ross, Malcolm D.,John Lynch,Malcolm Ross,Terry Crowley (ed.)(2002).The Oceanic Languages.Richmond, Surrey:Curzon Press.
  79. Ross, Malcolm D.,R. M. W. Dixon,Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald (ed.)(2001).Areal Diffusion and Genetic Inheritance: Problems in Comparative Linguistics.Oxford:Oxford University Press.
  80. Sperlich, Wolfgang B.(1993).Serial verb constructions in Namakir of central Vanuatu.Oceanic Linguistics,32(1),97-110.
  81. Tauberschmidt, Gerhard.(1999).Pacific Linguistics C-143.Canberra:The Australian National University.
  82. Wierzbicka, Anna.(1988).The Semantics of Grammar.Amsterdam:John Benjamins.
  83. Zwicky, Arnold M.,Greville C. Corbett,Norman M. Fraser,Scott McGlashan (ed.)(1993).Heads in Grammatical Theory.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
Times Cited
  1. 陳思瑋(2007)。泰雅語施用結構之研究。清華大學語言學研究所學位論文。2007。1-121。 
  2. 吳添成(2012)。含硫高爐渣液相溫度與表面張力的研究。臺灣大學材料科學與工程學研究所學位論文。2012。1-114。 
  3. 洪媽益(2009)。Cebuano功能參考語法。臺灣大學語言學研究所學位論文。2009。1-697。 
  4. 李佩璇(2009)。自行車的休閒化:休閒實作型式的象徵鬥爭。臺灣大學社會學研究所學位論文。2009。1-231。 
  5. 楊皓舜(2008)。品牌個性與產品外觀設計之研究。臺北科技大學商業自動化與管理研究所學位論文。2008。1-181。
  6. 張婷婷(2010)。論國際漁業之規範:以南太平洋區域漁業管理組織為例。國立臺灣大學法律學研究所學位論文。2010。1-156。
  7. 葉詩綺(2011)。Issues in Paiwan Phonology。清華大學語言學研究所學位論文。2011。1-178。
  8. 簡銘儀(2011)。日本自衛隊海外派兵行動之研究。政治大學外交學系戰略與國際事務碩士在職專班學位論文。2011。1-169。
  9. 羅舜璋(2016)。綜合格鬥的參與-暴力還是武力?。臺灣大學社會學研究所學位論文。2016。1-92。