Changting Hakka Tone Sandhi: Analytical Challenges

Translated Titles



陳淵泉(Matthew Y Chen)

Key Words

客語 ; 連調變化 ; 基於規律的模型 ; 優選理論 ; Hakka ; tone sandhi ; rule-based model ; Optimality Theory



Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

5卷4期(2004 / 10 / 01)

Page #

799 - 820

Content Language


Chinese Abstract


English Abstract

The Hakka dialect of Changting exhibits extraordinarily complex tone sandhi patterns, that present daunting analytical challenges to any theory, including rulebased generative model as well as Optimality Theory. This paper examines the possible extensions and logical moves within both theories, and concludes that both theoretical models in their current form fall short of their descriptive goals. Hakka is a limiting case that severely tests the adequacy of conceptual tools at our disposal.

Topic Category 人文學 > 語言學
  1. Chen, M.(2000).Tone Sandhi: Patterns across Chinese Dialects.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
  2. Chen, M.,B. Hermans (ed.),M. van Oostendorp(1999).The Derivational Residue in Phonological Optimality Theory.Amsterdam and Philadelphia:John Benjamins.
  3. Chen, M.,L.-H. Wee,X.-H. Yan(2002).The paradox of Hakka tone sandhi.Hong Kong:City University of Hong Kong.
  4. Goldsmith, J. (ed)(1995).The Handbook of Phonological Theory.Cambridge, MA:Blackwell.
  5. Howard, I.(1972).A Derivational Theory of Rule Application in Phonology.MIT dissertation.
  6. Hsu, H-C..More on One Step Principle in tonal derivation.
  7. Hsu, H-C.(1994).San Diego,University of California dissertation.
  8. Kenstowicz, M.,C. Kisseberth(1977).Topics in Phonological Theory.New York:Academic Press.
  9. Li, R-L.(1965).Disyllabic and trisyllabic tone sandhi in Changting.Xiamen Daxue Xuebao,2,57-61.
  10. Luo, M-Z.(1982).Tone sandhi in the Hakka dialect of Changting, Fujian.Yuyan Yanjiu,2,188-197.
  11. McCarthy, J.(1998).Sympathy and phonological opacity. ROA #398.
  12. McCarthy, J.(2002).Comparative markedness. ROA #489.
  13. McCarthy, J.,C. Férv (ed.),R. van der Vijver(2000).The Optimal Syllable.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
  14. Rao, C-R.(1987).Tone sandhi in the Kejia dialect of Changting, Fujian.Zhongguo Yuwen,3,191-200.
Times Cited
  1. 歐莉亞(2013)。東協與印度雙邊關係:新現實主義之觀點。淡江大學亞洲研究所碩士班學位論文。2013。1-116。