Title

飛行員「飛行壓力內隱聯結測驗」的發展

Translated Titles

Development of Implicit Association Test for Flight Stress toward Pilots

Authors

邱發忠(Fa-Chung Chiu);徐芝君(Chih-Chun Hsu);陳學志(Hsueh-Chih Chen)

Key Words

內隱聯結測驗 ; 飛行壓力 ; 膚電反應 ; 壓力 ; flight stress ; Galvanic Skin Response ; Implicit Association Test ; stress

PublicationName

測驗學刊

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

60卷1期(2013 / 03 / 01)

Page #

97 - 116

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

本研究目的在發展測量飛行員飛行壓力的「內隱聯結測驗」(Implicit Association Test, IAT),並以一般壓力IAT作為參照。在研究一部分,將36位飛行員隨機分派至壓力與非壓力組,壓力組以十張飛行失事圖片誘發壓力狀態,而非壓力組則僅呈現中性圖片。之後,進行飛行壓力與一般壓力IAT的測量。結果發現,壓力狀況飛行員在飛行壓力IAT的量數高於非壓力狀況者,而一般壓力IAT則無區辨效度,即飛行壓力IAT可以區辨高、低壓力狀態的飛行員。在研究二中,以30位飛行員為參與者,要求參與者觀看研究一的十張壓力圖片,同時也測量其膚電反應(Galvanic Skin Response, GSR),此外,也施測飛行壓力與一般壓力IAT,以及外顯自陳飛行壓力與一般壓力狀態。結果發現,兩個IAT均與GSR呈現顯著相關(r分別為.48與.53)、外顯的一般壓力測量與GSR的r = -.24^n.s,以及外顯飛行壓力測量與GSR的r = -.32。由此顯示,IAT具有效標關聯效度。綜合上述,本研究所編製的壓力IAT具有效度,可以有效測量飛行員的內隱壓力狀態。

English Abstract

This study aims to develop the flight stress Implicit Association Test(IAT)by taking the general stress IAT as reference. In Experiment 1, 36 pilots were randomly assigned to the stress group and the non-stress group. Ten aircraft accident pictures were shown to the pilots in the stress group to induce their stress state, and ten neutral pictures were shown to the pilots in the non-stress group. Afterward, the flight stress IAT and the general stress IAT were performed. The results showed that the score of IAT for the pilots in the stress group was higher than those in the non-stress group. In Experiment 2, 30 pilots were required to watch the same stress pictures as those in Experiment 1, and their Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) were measured at the same time. In addition, the flight stress IAT and the general stress IAT were performed, and the explicit self-repot flight stress and general stress statuses were measured. The results revealed that two IATs and GSR were significantly related (r = .48 and .53, accordingly), the correlation between the explicit general stress measurement and GRS was not significant (r = .24), and the correlation between the explicit flight stress measurement and GRS was not significant either (r = -.32). The results indicated that the flight stress IAT has criterion-related validity. In sum, the flight stress IAT edited in this study is proven to be a valid instrument which can measure pilot’s implicit stress sate.

Topic Category 社會科學 > 心理學
社會科學 > 教育學
Reference
  1. Chou, T. A.,Chiu, F. C.,Chen, H. C.,Hsu, C. C.,Cho, S. L.(2009).Implicit and explicit measures of the shyness.Bulletin of Educational Psychology,41(2),453-474.
    連結:
  2. Ahmadi, K.,Alireza, K.(2007).Stress and job satisfaction among air force military pilots.Journal of Social Sciences,3(3),159-163.
  3. Alkov, R. A.,Gaynor, J. A.,Borowsky, M. S.(1985).Pilot error as a symptom of inadequate stress coping.Aviation Space & Environmental Medicine,56,244-247.
  4. Ames, S. L.,Grenard, J. L.,Sussman, S.,Wiers, R. W.(2007).Comparison of indirect assessments of association as predictors of marijuana use among at-risk adolescents.Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology,15,204-218.
  5. Asendorpf, J. B.,Banse, R.,Mücke, D.(2002).Double dissociation between implicit and explicit personality self-concept: The case of shy behavior.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,83,380-393.
  6. Backs, R. W.(Ed.),Boucsein, W.(Ed.)(2000).Engineering psychophysiology: Issues and applications.Mahwah, NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  7. Banse, R.,Seise, J.,Zerbes, N.(2001).Implicit attitudes towards homosexuality: Reliability, validity, and controllability of the IAT.Zeitscrift for Experimentelle Psychologie,48,145-160.
  8. Beehr, T.(1995).Psychological stress in the workplace.London, UK:Routledge.
  9. Boucsein, W.(1992).Electrodermal activity.New York, NY:PlenumPress.
  10. Bowles, S.,Ursin, H.,Picano, J.(2000).Aircrew perceived stress: Examining crewperformance, crew position, and captains personality.Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine,71,1093-1097.
  11. Carlisle, D.(2001).Features-pilot stress and what to do about it-excess stress can damage physical and psychological well-being, and can interfere with your piloting ability: Here's how to identify and overcome.Business and Commercial Aviation,89,92-99.
  12. Clerkin, E. M.,Teachman, B. A.(2010).Training implicit social anxiety associations: An experimental intervention.Journal of Anxiety Disorders,24,300-308.
  13. Cohen, J.(1988).Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.).Hillsdale, NJ:Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.
  14. Cohen, S.,Kamarck, T.,Mermelstein, R.(1983).A global measure of perceived stress.Journal of Health and Social Behaviour,24,385-396.
  15. Cronbach, L. J.(1990).Essentials of psychological testing (5th ed.).New York, NY:Harper & Row.
  16. Cunningham, W. A.,Preacher, K. J.,Banaji, M. R.(2001).Implicit attitude measures: Consistency, stability, and convergent validity.Psychological Science,121,163-170.
  17. Dehart, R. L.(Ed.)(1996).Fundamentals of aerospace medicine.Baltimor, MD:Williams and Wilkins Copy.
  18. Devine, P. G.,Plant, E. A.,Amodio, D. M.,Harmon-Jones, E.,Vance, S. L.(2002).The regulation of explicit and implicit race bias: The role of motivations to respond without prejudice.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,82,835-848.
  19. Doyle, C.,Hind, P.(1998).Occupational stress, burnout and job status in female academics.Gender, Work & Organization,5,67-82.
  20. Egloff, B.,Schmukle, S. C.(2002).Predictive validity of an Implicit Association Test for assessing anxiety.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,83,1441-1455.
  21. El-Gilany, A.,Amr, M.,Brar, A.,Nejad, F.,Gaidhane, M.,Vatsyayann, S.(2010).Perceived stress among tomorrow's attorneys in Mansoura, Egypt.International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health,2,20-30.
  22. Ernsting, J.(Ed.),Nicholson, A. N.(Ed.),Rainford, D. J.(Ed.)(2000).Aviation medicine.London, UK:Butterworth-Heinemann.
  23. Fazio, R. H.,Olson, M. A.(2003).Implicit measures in social cognition: Their meaning and use.Annual Review of Psychology,54,297-327.
  24. French, S. E.,Lenton, R.,Walters, V.,Eyles, J.(2000).An empirical evaluation of an expanded nursing stress scale.Journal of Nursing Measurement,8(2),161-178.
  25. Friese, M.,Bluemke, M.,Wänke, M.(2007).Predicting voting behavior with implicit attitude measures.Experimental Psychology,54(4),247-255.
  26. Frost, P.,Adie, M.,Denomme, R.,Lahaie, A.,Sibley, A.,Smith, E.(2010).Application of the Implicit Association Test to a study on deception.American Journal of Psychology,123,221-230.
  27. Goethem, A.,Scholte, R.,Wiers, R.(2010).Explicit and implicit bullying attitudes in relation to bullying behavior.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,38,829-842.
  28. Greenwald, A. G.,Farnham, S. D.(2000).Using the Implicit Association Test to measure self-esteem and self-concept.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,79,1022-1038.
  29. Greenwald, A. G.,McGhee, D. E.,Schwartz, J. L. K.(1998).Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit Association Test.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,74,1464-1480.
  30. Greenwald, A. G.,Nosek, B. A.(2001).Health of the Implicit Association Test at age 3.Zeitschrift fur Experimentelle Psychologie,48,85-93.
  31. Greenwald, A. G.,Nosek, B. A.,Banaji, M. R.(2003).Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,85,197-216.
  32. Grumm, M.,Hein, S.,Fingerle, M.(2011).Predicting aggressive behavior in children with the help of measures of implicit and explicit aggression.International Journal of Behavioral Development,35(4),352-357.
  33. Hofmann, W.,Gawronski, B.,Gschwender, T.,Le, H.,Schmitt, M.(2005).A metaanalysis on the correlation between the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,31,1369-1385.
  34. Holden, R. R.,Wood, L. L.,Tomashewski, L.(2001).Do response time limitations counteract the effect of faking on personality inventory validity?.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,81,160-169.
  35. Houben, K.,Nosek, B. A.,Wiers, R. W.(2010).Seeing the forest through the trees: A comparison of different IAT variants measuring implicit alcohol associations.Drug &Alcohol Dependence,106(2/3),204-211.
  36. Houben, K.,Wiers, R.W.(2008).Implicitly positive about alcohol? Implicit positive associations predict drinking behavior.Addictive behaviors,33(8),979-986.
  37. Johnson, S.,Cooper, C.(2003).The construct validity of the ASSET stress measure.Stress and Health,19(3),181-185.
  38. Kihlstrom, J. F.(1987).The cognitive unconscious.Science,237,1445-1452.
  39. Kim, D. Y.(2003).Voluntary controllability of the Implicit Association Test (IAT).Social Psychology Quarterly,66,83-96.
  40. Lee, Y. H.,Liu, B. S.(2003).Inflight workload assessment: Comparison of subjective and physiological measurements.Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine,74(10),1078-1084.
  41. Mackersie, C. L.,Cones, H.(2011).Subjective and psychophysiological indices of listening effort in a competing-talker task.Journal of the American Academy of Audiology,22,113-122.
  42. Mandler, G.(1975).Mind and emotion.New York, NY:John Wiley & Sons.
  43. McCarthy, D. M.,Thompsen, D. M.(2006).Implicit and explicit measures of alcohol and smoking cognitions.Psychology of Addictive Behaviors,20,436-444.
  44. McGrath, J. E.(1984).Groups: Interaction and performance.Englewood Cliffs, NJ:Prentice-Hall.
  45. Nock, M. K.,Park, J. M.,Finn, C. T.,Deliberto, T. L.,Dour, H. J.,Banaji, M. R.(2010).Measuring the suicidal mind.Psychological Science,21(4),511-516.
  46. Ohrui, N.,Kanazawa, F.,Takeuchi, Y.,Otsuka, Y.,Tarui, H.,Miyamoto, Y.(2008).Urinary catecholamine responses in F-15 pilots: Evaluation of the stress induced by long-distance flights.Military Medicine,173,594-598.
  47. Perugini, M.,Banse, R.(2007).Personality, implicit self-concept and automaticity.European Journal of Personality,21,257-261.
  48. Pflanz, S.(2001).Occupational stress and psychiatric illness in the military: Investigation of the relationship between occupational stress and mental illness among military mental health patients.Military Medicine,166,457-462.
  49. Roccato, M.,Zogmaister, C.(2010).Predicting the vote through implicit and explicit attitudes: A field research.Political Psychology,31,249-274.
  50. Rosenthal, R.(Ed.),Rosnow, R. L.(Ed.)(1969).Artifact in behavioral research.NewYork, NY:Academic Press.
  51. Stieger, S.,Göritz, A. S.,Burger, C.(2010).Personalizing the IAT and the SC-IAT: Impact of idiographic stimulus selection in the measurement of implicit anxiety.Personality & Individual Differences,48,940-944.
  52. Theorell, T.,Karasek, R.(1996).Current issues relating to psychosocial job strain and cardiovascular disease research..Journal of Occupational Health Psychology,1,9-26.
  53. Thought Technology Ltd.(2011).Biograph infiniti software manual.Canada:Author.
  54. Turner, R. N.,Crisp, R. J.(2010).Imagining intergroup contact reduces implicit prejudice.British Journal of Social Psychology,49,129-142.
  55. Veltman, J.,Gaillard, A.(1996).Physiological indices of workload in a simulated flight task.Biological Psychology,42,323-342.
  56. Viswesvaran, C.,Ones, D. S.(1999).Meta-analyses of fakability estimates: Implications for personality measurement.Educational and Psychological Measurement,59,197-210.
  57. Wicker, A. W.(1969).Attitudes versus actions: The relationship of verbal and overt behavioral responses to attitude objects.Journal of Social Issues,25,41-78.
  58. Wiggins, M.,O''Hare, D.(2003).Weatherwise: Evaluation of a cue-based training approach for the recognition of deteriorating weather conditions during flight.Human Factors,45,337.
Times Cited
  1. 陳儀婕、涂莉苹、邱發忠(2013)。憂鬱內隱聯結測驗的發展。中華心理衛生學刊,26(4),569-604。