Title

展示、說服與謠言:十九世紀傳教醫療在中國

Translated Titles

Demonstration, Persuasion and Rumor: Medical Missions to Nineteenth-Century China

Authors

李尚仁(Shang-Jen Li)

Key Words

傳教醫療 ; 謠言 ; 外科手術 ; 帝國主義 ; 反基督教運動 ; Missionary Medicine ; Rumor ; Surgery ; Imperialism ; Anti-Christian Movement

PublicationName

科技醫療與社會

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

8期(2009 / 04 / 01)

Page #

9 - 75

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

本文探討十九世紀西方醫療傳教士在中國的活動以及他們所激起的爭議與衝突。傳教士希望透過慈善醫療手段解除中國人身體病痛,博取中國人好感,促使他們樂於接受基督教福音。醫療傳教士偏好使用外科手術治療白內障、割除腫瘤或是摘除膀胱結石,透過立即療效的戲劇效果讓中國人信服西方醫學。然而,強調西方醫學神奇的療效卻有其危險。許多中國人認為傳教醫師在施行邪術,攻擊基督教的謠言、揭帖與小冊一再宣稱傳教士剜中國人眼睛、割掉中國人的內臟乃至取出孕婦懷中胎兒來煉製迷藥與鴉片。這類謠言激起了好幾起攻擊傳教士的暴動事件。本文分析傳教士如何透過宗教儀式與論述使得他們的醫療活動具有濃厚的宗教意涵,檢視中國人對於傳教醫學神奇色彩的反應,並且探討反對基督教的士大夫為何認為西方醫學是種邪術,以及他們如何透過中國傳統醫學理論、民俗傳說以及正邪之分的文化傳統來了解傳教醫療活動,進而動員民眾加以反對。

English Abstract

This paper examines the controversies aroused by western medical missionaries in China. The missionaries utilized surgical proceedings with dramatic effects to facilitate the conversion of the Chinese. However, the emphasis on the miraculous aspects of western surgery had its danger. Many Chinese identified the missionary medics as witch doctors. The Chinese anti-missionary propaganda repeatedly claimed that the missionaries gouged out the eyes of the Chinese for their practice of alchemy, and took away the organs of the natives to produced magic pills and opium. Several anti-missionary riots were instigated by this kind of rumors. This paper analyzes the ways the missionaries imbued their medical practices with religious meanings through rituals and discourse. It also discusses native reactions to the miraculous dimension of western medicine, especially how the anti missionary Chinese gentry perceived western medical practice as a form of witchcraft through the filter of their cultural resources such as Chinese medical theories, literature and folklore.

Topic Category 人文學 > 人文學綜合
醫藥衛生 > 醫藥衛生綜合
醫藥衛生 > 醫藥總論
醫藥衛生 > 基礎醫學
醫藥衛生 > 預防保健與衛生學
醫藥衛生 > 社會醫學
社會科學 > 社會科學綜合
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