Title

原因和本質:克普勒與伽利略科學思想的形上學差異

Translated Titles

Causation and Essence: The Discrepancies in Metaphysics of Scientific Thoughts Between Kepler and Galileo

DOI

10.6464/TJSSTM.201210.0117

Authors

戴東源(Dong-Yuan Tai)

Key Words

亞里斯多德 ; 哥白尼 ; 克普勒 ; 伽利略 ; 原因 ; 本質 ; Aristotle ; Copernicus ; Kepler ; Galileo ; causation ; essence

PublicationName

科技醫療與社會

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

15期(2012 / 10 / 01)

Page #

117 - 185

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

本文有兩重目的,一是提供克普勒與伽利略兩人疏離關係一個另類解釋,二是透過兩人思想差異的耙梳,呈現十七世紀初期科學變遷中,擁護相同理論的科學家彼此觀點的歧異,及其引領思潮的衝突與調和。克普勒和伽利略都是哥白尼學說的支持者,有過短暫交流,但科學見解少有交集,甚至觀點針鋒相對。為何如此?這問題吸引許多學者提出各種說法。本文從兩人形上學觀點差異的角度,尤其原因和本質的觀念,說明兩人關係的疏離的原因。另一方面,經由這種思想差異的分析,展示兩人各自支持哥白尼理論的不同想法,及十七世紀初科學哲學思潮的衝突與整合的來龍去脈。本文依序從問題背景、克普勒的天文學工作、行星軌道形狀、潮汐等主題,論述兩人科學思想的形上學差異。

English Abstract

The aim of this paper is twofold. First, it offers an alternative explanation for the distant relationship between Kepler and Galileo through revealing their divergent ways of philosophizing. It shows the two Copernicans had their own metaphysical ideas, especially concerning their notions of causation and of essence which differed from each other. Without disclosing the differences in their metaphysical ideas, it is hard to understand why the two Copernicans were never able to work closely together. Second, by way of examining both men, it also illustrates that Kepler and Galileo embraced conflicting schools of thought which were in existence before the seventeenth century. The reconciliation of these schools including Platonism and Aristotelianism, essentialism and nonessentialism, animism and mechanism, with Copernican astronomy was an important part of Kepler and Galileo's work in the early seventeenth century now known as the scientific revolution.

Topic Category 人文學 > 人文學綜合
醫藥衛生 > 醫藥衛生綜合
醫藥衛生 > 醫藥總論
醫藥衛生 > 基礎醫學
醫藥衛生 > 預防保健與衛生學
醫藥衛生 > 社會醫學
社會科學 > 社會科學綜合
Reference
  1. 戴東源(2012)。伽利略為何疏遠克普勒?。長庚人文社會學報
    連結:
  2. 戴東源(2007)。克普勒之前的天文思想演變:哥白尼與第谷。科技、醫療與社會,5,111-182。
    連結:
  3. Galilei, Galileo (1890-1909). Le opere di Galileo Galilei, edited by Antonio Favaro. 20 vols. National Edition of Galileo's collected works. Firenze: Barbèra. In Landmarks of Science I Monographs[microform]..
  4. Aristotle,Barnes, Jonathan(edited)(1984).The Complete Work of Aristotle.Princeton:Princeton University Press.
  5. Barnes, Jonathan(edited)(1995).The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle.Cambridge University Press.
  6. Baumgardt, Carola(ed.)(1952).Johannes Kepler: Life and Letters, with an introduction by Albert Einstein.New York:Philosophical Library.
  7. Biagioli, Mario(1993).Galileo, Courtier: The Practice of Science in the Culture of Absolutism.Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
  8. Boner, Patric J.(2006).Kepler's Living Cosmology: Bridging the Celestial and Terrestrial Realms.Centaurus,48,32-39.
  9. Burtt, Edwin Arthur(1999).The Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Physical Science.New York:Prometheus Books.
  10. Casper, Max,Hellman, C. Doris(translated edited)(1993).Kepler.New York:Dover.
  11. Christanson, John Robert(2000).On Tycho's Island: Tycho Brahe and His Assistants, 1570-1601.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
  12. Copernicus, Nicolaus,Rosen, Edward(trans.)(1992).On the Revolutions/De Revolutionibus Orbium Caelestium.Baltimore:Johns Hopkins University Press.
  13. Crew, Henry(translated),Salvio, Alfonso de(translated)(1952).Great Books of the Western World.Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
  14. Dear, Peter(ed.)(1997).The Scientific Enterprise in Early Modern Europe: Reading from Isis.Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
  15. Drake, Stillman(1981).Cause, Experiment, and Science: A Galilean Dialogue, with a new English translation of Galileo's Bodies that Stay atop Water, or Move in It.Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
  16. Drake, Stillman(1999).Essays on Galileo and the History and Philosophy of science.Toronto:University of Toronto Press.
  17. Drake, Stillman(1980).Galileo.Oxford:Oxford University Press.
  18. Drake, Stillman(1978).Galileo at Work: His Scientific Biography.Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
  19. Drake, Stillman(1983).Telescopes, Tides, and Tactics: A Galilean Dialogue about the Starry Messenger and Systems of the World.Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
  20. Drake, Stillman(1987).Galileo' s Step to Full Copernicanism, and Back.Studies in the History of the Philosophy of Science,18,93-150.
  21. Drake, Stillman(ed. trans.)(1957).Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo.Garden City, N. Y.:Doubleday.
  22. Drake, Stillman(ed. trans.),O'' Malley, C. D.(ed. trans.)(1960).The Controversy on the Comet of 1618.Philadelphia:University of Philadelphia Press.
  23. Dreyer, John Louis Emil(2004).Tycho Brache: A Picture of Scientific Life and Work in the Sixteenth Century.Kila, Montana:Kessinger Publishing.
  24. Ferguson, Kitty(2002).Tycho & Kepler: The Unlikely Partnership that Forever Changed Our Understanding of the Heavens.New York:Walker & Co..
  25. Finocchiaro, Maurice A.(ed. trans.)(1989).The Galileo Affair: A Documentary History.Berkeley:University of California.
  26. Galilei, Galileo,Drake, Stillman(trans.)(1978).Operations of the Geometric and Military Compass.Washington, D. C.:Smithsonian Institution Press.
  27. Galilei, Galileo,Drake, Stillman(translated notes)(1976).Galileo Against the Philosophers in His Dialogue of Cecco di Ronchitti (1605) and Considerations of Alimberto Mauri (1606).Los Angeles:Zeitlin & Ver Brugge.
  28. Galilei, Galileo,Drake, Stillman(translated)(1974).The New Sciences.Madison Wisconsin:University of Wisconsin Press.
  29. Galilei, Galileo,Drake, Stillman(translated, revised notes)(2001).Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems: Ptolemaic and Copernican.New York:Modern Library.
  30. Galilei, Galileo,Helden, Albert Van(translated notes)(1989).Sidereus Nuncius.Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
  31. Gilbert, William,Mottelay, P. Fleury(translated)(1958).De magnete.New York:Dover.
  32. Gingerich, Owen(2004).The Book Nobody Read: Chasing the Revolutions of Nicolaus Copernicus.New York:Walker & Company.
  33. Gingerich, Owen(1993).The Eye of Heaven: Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler.New York:American Institute of Physics.
  34. Grant, Edward(1996).Planets, Stars, and Orbs: the Medieval Cosmos, 1200-1687.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
  35. Hanson, Norwood Russell(1961).The Copernican Disturbance and the Keplerian Revolution.Journal of the History of Ideas,22,169-184.
  36. Kepler, Johannes,Donabue, William H.(translated)(1992).New Astronomy.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
  37. Kepler, Johannes,Donabue, William H.(translated)(2000).Optics: Paralipomena to Witelo & Optical Part of Astronomy.Santa Fe, N. M.:Green Lion Press.
  38. Kepler, Johannes,Duncan, A. M.(translated)(1981).The Secret of the Universe/Mysterium Cosmographicum.New York:Abaris Books.
  39. Kepler, Johannes,Jardine, N.(translated)(1984).A Defence of Tycho Against Ursus.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
  40. Kepler, Johannes,Rosen, Edward(translated)(2003).Kepler' Somnium: the Dream, or Posthumous Work on Lunar Astronomy.New York:Dover.
  41. Koestler, Arthur(1959).The Sleepwalkers: A History of Man' s Changing Vision of the Universe.London:Penguin Books.
  42. Koyré, Alexandre(1992).Metaphysics and Measurement.Yverdon, Switzerland:Gordon and Breach Science Publishers.
  43. Koyré, Alexandre,Maddison, R. E. W.(translated)(1973).The Astronomical Revolution: Copernicus, Kepler, Borelli.Paris:Hermann.
  44. Koyré, Alexandre,Mepham, John(translated)(1978).Galileo Studies.Atlantic Highlands, N.J.:Humanities Press.
  45. Kuhn, Thomas(1957).The Copernican Revolution: Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought.Cambridge, Mass.:Harvard University Press.
  46. Langford, Jerome J.(1992).Galileo, Science and the Church.Ann Arbor:University of Michigan Press.
  47. Lattis, James M.(1994).Between Copernicus and Galileo: Christoph Clavius and the Collapse of Ptolemaic Cosmology.Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
  48. Lindberg, David(1992).The Beginnings of Western Science.Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
  49. Lindberg, David(ed.)(1978).Science in the Middle Age.Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
  50. Mach, Ernst,McCormack, Thomas J.(translated)(1960).The Science of Mechanics: A Critical and Historical Account of Its Development.LaSalle, Ill:Open Court.
  51. Machamer, Peter,Butts, Robert(edited),Pitt, Joseph(edited)(1978).New Perspectives on Galileo.Dordrecht:D. Reidel.
  52. Mosely, Adam(2007).Bearing the Heavens: Tycho Brahe and the Astronomical Community of the Late Sixteenth Century.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
  53. Osler, Margaret J.(1997).Galileo, Motion, and Essences.Isis,64,504-509.
  54. Rosen, Edward(1956).Reviewed Work: Galileo as a Critic of Arts.Isis,47,78-80.
  55. Russell, John L.(1964).Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion: 1609-1666.British Journal for the History of Science,2,1-24.
  56. Santillana, Giorgio de(1962).The Crime of Galileo.New York:Time Inc..
  57. Sharratt, Michael(2000).Galileo: Decisive Innovator.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
  58. Shea, William R.(1977).Galileo's Intellectual Revolution: Middle Period, 1610-1632.New York:Science History Publications.
  59. Stephenson, Bruce(1994).Kepler's Physical Astronomy.Princeton, N.J.:Springer.
  60. Voelkel, James R.(2001).The Composition of Kepler's Astronomia Nova.Princeton:Princeton University Press.
  61. Wallace, William A.(1984).Galileo and His Sources: The Heritage of the Collegio Romano in Galileo's Science.Princeton, N.J.:Princeton University Press.
  62. Wallace, William A.(1977).Galileo's Early Notebooks: The Physical Questions.Notre Dame:University of Notre Dame Press.
  63. Wallis, Charles Glenn(translated),Kepler, Johannes(1952).Great Books of the Western World.Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
  64. Westfall, Richard S.(1977).The Construction of Modern Science: Mechanisms and Mechanics.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
  65. Westfall, Richard S.(1997).Science and Patronage: Galileo and the Telescope.Isis,76,113-132.
  66. Westman, Robert(2001).Kepler's Early Physical-Astrological Problematic.Journal for the History of Astronomy,32,227-236.
  67. Westman, Robert(1980).The Astronomer's Role in the Sixteenth Century:A Preliminary Study.History of Science,18,105-147.
  68. Whiteside, D. T.(1974).Keplerian Planetary Eggs, Laid and Unlaid, 1600-1609.Journal for the History of Astronomy,5,1-21.
  69. Wilson, Curtis(1968).Kepler's Derivation of the Elliptical Path.Isis,59,4-25.
  70. 伽利略、周煦良譯(2006)。關於托勒密和哥白尼兩大世界體系的對話。北京:北京大學出版社。
  71. 伽利略、武際可譯(2006)。關於兩門新科學的對話。北京:北京大學出版社。
  72. 伽利略、徐光台譯(2004)。星際信使。台北:天下文化。
  73. 亞里斯多德、吳壽彭譯(1997)。形而上學。北京:商務印書館。
  74. 亞里斯多德、張竹明譯(2004)。物理學。北京:商務印書館。
  75. 林正弘(1991)。伽利略•波柏•科學說明。台北:東大圖書公司。
  76. 金格瑞契、賴盈滿譯(2007)。追蹤哥白尼。台北:遠流。
  77. 哥白尼、張卜天譯(2005)。天體運行論。台北:大塊文化。
  78. 哥白尼、葉式輝譯、易照華校(2001)。天體運行論。西安:陝西人民出版社。
  79. 陳瑞麟(2004)。科學理論版本的結構與發展。台北:台大出版中心。
  80. 德瑞克、劉君燦譯(1985)。伽利略。台北:聯經。