Title

家庭功能對高中職學生自傷行為之影響:以述情障礙為中介變項

Translated Titles

The Effect of Family Function on Nonsuicidal Self-Injury among Senior High School Students: The Mediating Role of Alexithymia

Authors

羅文均(Wen-Chun Lo);林旻沛(Min-Pei Lin);攸佳寧(Jia-Ning You);胡薇瑄(Wei-Hsuan Hu)

Key Words

中介變項 ; 自我傷害 ; 述情障礙 ; 高中職學生 ; 家庭功能 ; alexithymia ; family function ; mediator ; nonsuicidal self-injury ; senior high school students

PublicationName

中華輔導與諮商學報

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

45期(2016 / 04 / 01)

Page #

67 - 93

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

本研究旨在瞭解高中職學生自傷行為盛行率之現況,以及檢視家庭功能和述情障礙對自傷行為之預測,並檢證述情障礙在家庭功能與自傷行為間所扮演之中介角色。本研究以高中與高職學生為研究對象,採分層(高中、高職)、叢集(以班為單位)方式進行抽樣,取得 2170 名有效樣本(高中生佔51.94%;女性佔52.13%),施以「簡式家庭功能量表」、「述情障礙量表」與「自傷行為量表」進行分析。本研究發現如下:(1)20.49%(95% 信賴區間為18.79%-22.19%)的高中職學生表示在過去一年內曾有過自傷行為,且女性顯著多於男性;(2)低家庭功能可顯著預測自傷行為;(3)述情障礙能顯著預測自傷行為;(4)低家庭功能可顯著預測述情障礙;以及(5)述情障礙能部分中介低家庭功能對自傷行為之影響。研究者根據研究結果提出建議,以供學校與諮商輔導人員及未來研究參考。

English Abstract

The present study aimed to understand the prevalence of nonsuicidal self-injury among senior high school students and to investigate the effect of family function and alexithymia in predicting nonsuicidal self-injury. In addition, we examined the mediating role of alexithymia in the relationship between family function and nonsuicidal self-injury. This study recruited 2170 senior high school students through stratified (high school and technical school) and clustered (class as unit) sampling (high school students: 51.94%; females 52.13%). Administered questionnaires included the short-form of Family Function Scale, 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Scale. Findings showed the following: (1) 20.49 % (95% confidence interval: 18.79%-22.19%) of the participants reported that they had nonsuicidal self-injury within twelve months; females showed significantly higher percentage than males. (2) Poor family function significantly predicted nonsuicidal self-injury. (3) Alexithymia significantly predicted nonsuicidal self-injury. (4) Poor family function significantly predicted alexithymia; and (5) Alexithymia mediated the relationship between poor family function and nonsuicidal self-injury. Findings from the present study provided suggestions and a reference for schools and guidance counselors, as well as for future research.

Topic Category 社會科學 > 心理學
社會科學 > 教育學
Reference
  1. 林志哲(2014)。感恩、社會支持及幸福感之研究:中介效果模式之驗證。中華心理衛生學刊,27(3),453-482。
    連結:
  2. 林育臣、陳展航(2006)。綜合醫院非精神科門診病患情感表達不能特質。台灣精神醫學,20(4),272-278。
    連結:
  3. 林耀盛、李仁宏、吳英璋(2006)。雙親教養態度、家庭功能與青少年憂鬱傾向關係探討。臨床心理學刊,3(1),35-45。
    連結:
  4. 陳毓文(2000)。他們想說什麼?-青少年自傷行為之初探。社會政策與社會工作學刊,4(2),127-178。
    連結:
  5. 程炳林(2003)。四向度目標導向模式之研究。師大學報:教育類,48(1),15-40。
    連結:
  6. 劉惠青、劉珣瑛、黃郁心、鍾嫈嫈、方俊凱(2011)。北台灣高中職學生自傷盛行率及其危險因子之研究。臺灣家庭醫學雜誌,21(1),27-39。
    連結:
  7. 教育部校園安全暨災害防救通報處理中心(2006):教育部九十四年各級學校校園統計分析報告。取 http://140.111.1.166/%E7%9B%B8%E9%97%9C%E7%B6%B2%E9%A0%81%E9%80%A3%E7%B5%90/94%E5%B9%B4%E5%90%84%E7%B4%9A%E5%AD%B8%E6%A0%A1%E6%A0%A1%E5%9C%92%E4%BA%8B%E4%BB%B6%E7%B5%B1%E8%A8%88%E5%88%86%E6%9E%90%E5%A0%B1%E5%91%8A.pdf [Campus Security Report Center (2006). Statistical analysis of campus event in Ministry of Education in 2005. Retrieved from http://140.111.1.166/%E7%9B%B8%E9%97%9C%E7%B6%B2%E9%A0%81%E9%80%A3%E7%B5%90/94%E5%B9%B4%E5%90%84%E7%B4%9A%E5%AD%B8%E6%A0%A1%E6%A0%A1%E5%9C%92%E4%BA%8B%E4%BB%B6%E7%B5%B1%E8%A8%88%E5%88%86%E6%9E%90%E5%A0%B1%E5%91%8A.pdf]
  8. 教育部校園安全暨災害防救通報處理中心(2013):教育部101 年各級學校校園安全及災害事件統計分析報告(簡版)。取自https://csrc.edu.tw/Content/FileManageFiles/2014012207240520140116101026_1021231-%E6%A0%A1%E5%AE%89%E4%B8%AD%E5%BF%83101%E5%B9%B4%E5%A0%B1%E5%91%8A(%E7%B0%A1%E7%89%88).pdf [Campus Security Report Center (2013). Statistical analysis of campus security and disaster event in Ministry of Education in 2012. Retrieved from https://csrc.edu.tw/Content/FileManageFiles/2014012207240520140116101026_1021231%E6%A0%A1%E5%AE%89%E4%B8%AD%E5%BF%83101%E5%B9%B4%E5%A0%B1%E5%91%8A(%E7%B0%A1%E7%89%88).pdf]
  9. Adrian, M.,Zeman, J.,Erdley, C.,Lisa, L.,Sim, L.(2011).Emotional dysregulation and interpersonal difficulties as risk factors for nonsuicidal self-injury in adolescent girls.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,39(3),389-400.
  10. Alfonso, M. L.,Kaur, R.(2012).Self-injury among early adolescents: Identifying segments protected and at risk.Journal of School Health,82(12),537-547.
  11. Asgeirsdottir, B. B.,Sigfusdottir, I. D.,Gudjonsson, G. H.,Sigurdsson, J. F.(2011).Associations between sexual abuse and family conflict/violence, self-injurious behavior, and substance use: The mediating role of depressed mood and anger.Child Abuse and Neglect,35(3),210-219.
  12. Aust, S.,Hartwig, E. A.,Heuser, I.,Bajbouj, M.(2013).The role of early emotional neglect in alexithymia.Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy,5(3),225-232.
  13. Baetens, I.,Claes, L.,Martin, G.,Onghena, P.,Grietens, H.,Leeuwen, K. V.,Griffith, J. W.(2014).Is nonsuicidal self-injury associated with parenting and family factors?.Journal of Early Adolescence,34(3),387-405.
  14. Bagby, R. M.,Parker, J. D. A.,Taylor, G. J.(1994).The twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia scale: I. Item selection and cross-validation of the factor structure.Journal of Psychosomatic Research,38(1),23-32.
  15. Baron, R. M.,Kenny, D. A.(1986).The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,51(6),1173-1182.
  16. Borrilla, J.,Foxb, P.,Flynna, M.,Roger, D.(2009).Students who self-harm: Coping style, rumination and alexithymia.Counselling Psychology Quarterly,22(4),361-372.
  17. Cheung, Y. T. D.,Wong, P. W. C.,Lee, A. M.,Lam, T. H.,Fan, Y. S. S.,Yip, P. S. F.(2013).Nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behavior: Prevalence, co-occurrence, and correlates of suicide among adolescents in Hong Kong.Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology,48(7),1133-1144.
  18. Claes, L.,Luyckx, K.,Bijttebier, P.(2014).Non-suicidal self-injury in adolescents: Prevalence and associations with identity formation above and beyond depression.Personality and Individual Differences,61-62,101-104.
  19. Cohen, J.(1988).Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences.Hillsdale, NJ:Erlbaum.
  20. Conterio, K.,Lader, W.(1998).Bodily harm: The breakthrough healing program for self-injurers.New York, NY:Hyperion.
  21. Garisch, J. A.,Wilson, M. S.(2010).Vulnerabilities to deliberate self-harm among adolescents: The role of alexithymia and victimization.British Journal of Clinical Psychology,49(Pt2),151-162.
  22. Gratz, K. L.(2006).Risk factors for deliberate self-harm among female college students: The role and interaction of childhood maltreatment, emotional inexpressivity, and affect intensity/reactivity.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry,76(2),238-250.
  23. Halstead, R. O.,Pavkov, T. W.,Hecker, L. L.,Seliner, M. M.(2014).Family dynamics and self-injury behaviors: A correlation analysis.Journal of Marital and Family Therapy,40(2),246-259.
  24. Hamza, C. A.,Stewart, S. L.,Willoughby, T.(2012).Examining the link between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behavior: A review of the literature and an integrated model.Clinical Psychology Review,32(6),482-496.
  25. Hsu, Y. F.,Chen, P. F.,Lung, F. W.(2013).Parental bonding and personality characteristics of first episode intention to suicide or deliberate self-harm without a history of mental disorders.BMC Public Health,13,421.
  26. Hu, L.,Bentler, P. M.(1999).Cutoff criteria for fit indices in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives.Structural Equation Modeling,6(1),1-55.
  27. Jacobson, C. M.,Gould, M.(2007).The epidemiology and phenomenology of non-suicidal selfinjurious behavior among adolescents: A critical review of the literature.Archives of Suicide Research,11(2),129-147.
  28. Kench, S.,Irwin, H. J.(2000).Alexithymia and childhood family environment.Journal of Clinical Psychology,56(6),737-745.
  29. King, J. L.,Mallinckrodt, B.(2000).Family environment and alexithymia in clients and non-clients.Psychotherapy Research,10(1),78-86.
  30. Klonsky, E. D.,May, A. M.,Glenn, C. R.(2013).The relationship between nonsuicidal self-injury and attempted suicide: Converging evidence from four samples.Journal of Abnormal Psychology,122(1),231-237.
  31. Klonsky, E. D.,Olino, T. M.(2008).Identifying clinically distinct subgroups of self-injurers among young adults: A latent class analysis.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,76(1),22-27.
  32. Ko, H. C.,Lin, M. P.,Liao, L. C.,Yu, R. L.,Su, L. C.,Chang, E. W. C.(2004).The prevalence and psychosocial risk factors for internet addiction among college students in Taiwan.the 1st Asia Pacific Institute of Addictions Conference,Singapore:
  33. Lambert, A.,Man, A. F.(2007).Alexithymia, depression, and self-mutilation in adolescent girls.North American Journal of Psychology,9(3),555-566.
  34. Linehan, M. M.(1993).Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder.New York, NY:Guilford Press.
  35. MacKinnon, D. P.,Lockwood, C. M.,Hoffman, J. M.,West, S. G.,Sheets, V.(2002).A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effect.Psychological Methods,7(1),83-104.
  36. Mallinckrodt, B.,King, J. L.,Coble, H. M.(1998).Family dysfunction, alexithymia, and client attachment to therapist.Journal of Counseling Psychology,45(4),497-504.
  37. Martens, M. P.(2005).The use of structural equation modeling in counseling psychology research.The Counseling Psychologist,33(3),269-298.
  38. Nixon, M. K.,Cloutier, P.,Jansson, S. M.(2008).Nonsuicidal self-harm in youth: A population-based survey.Canadian Medical Association Journal,178(3),306-312.
  39. Nock, M. K.(2010).Self-injury.Annual Review of Clinical Psychology,6,339-363.
  40. Nock, M. K.(2009).Why do people hurt themselves? New insights into the nature and functions of self-injury.Current Directions in Psychological Science,18(2),78-83.
  41. Nock, M. K.,Joiner, T. E.,Gordon, K. H.,Lloyd-Richardson, E.,Prinstein, M. J.(2006).Non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents: Diagnostic correlates and relation to suicide attempts.Psychiatry Research,144(1),65-72.
  42. Paivio, S. C.,McCulloch, C. R.(2004).Alexithymia as a mediator between childhood trauma and selfinjurious behaviors.Child Abuse and Neglect,28(3),339-354.
  43. Parker, J. D. A.,Talor, G. J.,Bagby, R. M.(2003).The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale III. Reliability and factorial validity in a community population.Journal of Psychosomatic Research,55(3),269-275.
  44. Peters R. M.,Lumley, M. A.(2007).Relationship of alexithymia to cardiovascular disease risk factors among African Americans.Comprehensive Psychiatry,48(1),34-41.
  45. Pierro, R. D.,Sarno, I.,Perego, S.,Gallucci, M.,Madeddu, F.(2012).Adolescent nonsuicidal selfinjury: The effects of personality traits, family relationships and maltreatment on the presence and severity of behaviours.European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,21(9),511-520.
  46. Polk, E.,Liss, M.(2007).Psychological characteristics of self-injurious behavior.Personality and Individual Differences,43(3),567-577.
  47. Selekman, M. D.(2002).Living on the Razor's edge.New York, NY:W.W. Norton & Company.
  48. Solomon, Y.,Farrand, J.(1996).Why don't you do it properly: Young women who self-injure.Journal of Adolescence,19(2),111-119.
  49. Stasiewicz, P. R.,Bradizza, C. M.,Gudleski, G. D.,Coffey, S. F.,Schlauch, R. C.,Bailey, S. T.,Gulliver, S. B.(2012).The relationship of alexithymia to emotional dysregulation within an alcohol dependent treatment sample.Addictive Behaviors,37(4),469-476.
  50. Suyemoto, K.,MacDonald, M.(1995).Self-cutting in female adolescents.Psychotherapy,32(1),162-171.
  51. Tang, J.,Yu, Y.,Wu, Y.,Du, Y.,Ma, Y.,Zhu, H.,Liu, Z.(2011).Association between non-suicidal self-injuries and suicide attempts in Chinese adolescents and college students: A cross-section study.Plos One,6(4),1-6.
  52. Victor, E. S.,Klonsky, E. D.(2014).Daily emotion on non-suicidal self-injury.Journal of Clinical Psychology,70(4),365-375.
  53. Yates, T. M.(2004).The developmental psychopathology of self-injurious behavior: Compensatory regulation in posttraumatic adaptation.Clinical Psychology Review,24(1),35-74.
  54. You, J.,Leung, F.(2012).The role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury in Chinese adolescents: A 2-year follow-up study.Journal of Adolescence,35(2),389-395.
  55. You, J.,Leung, F.,Fu, K.(2012).Exploring the reciprocal relations between nonsuicidal self-injury,negative emotions and relationship problems in Chinese adolescents: A longitudinal cross-lag study.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,40(5),829-836.
  56. 王淑惠(2001)。台南=Tainan, Taiwan,國立成功大學行為醫學研究所=National Cheng Kung University。
  57. 林美惠(2011)。新竹=Hsinchu, Taiwan,玄奘大學社會福利學系碩士在職專班=Department of Social Welfare, Hsuan Chuang University。
  58. 邱郁雯(2003)。台南=Tainan, Taiwan,國立成功大學行為醫學研究所=National Cheng Kung University。
  59. 袁勇貴、沈鑫華、張向榮、吳愛勤、孫厚純、張寧、李海林(2003)。多倫多述情障礙量表(TAS-20) 的信度和效度研究。四川精神衛生,16(1),25-27。
  60. 詹淑芬(2008)。桃園=Taoyuan, Taiwan,中原大學心理學研究所=Department of Psychology, Chung Yuan Christian University。