Identity Preservation in Hakha-Lai Tone Sandhi

Translated Titles





林蕙珊(Hui-Shan Lin)

Key Words

Taiwan Journal of Linguistics

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

3卷2期(2005 / 12 / 01)

Page #

1 - 43

Content Language


Chinese Abstract

本篇論文的主旨在於討論藏緬語中,哈卡倈語的連讀變調現象。深究的重點是哈卡倈語連讀變調現象中難以預測的變調方向性及變調方向性背後之意義。本篇論文所採用的理論模式是優選理論。本文認為,哈卡倈語的變調方向基本上是由右而左。因為這個方向性可以使得輸出聲調和其參考的聲調(base)比較相同。當這個方向性會衍生出在顯著位置(prominent position)有聲調變化或有標形式時,連讀變調方向就會發生改變。因此,變調的方向性可以由位置信實制約(positional faithfulness constraint),位置音韻制約(positional markedness constraint)和輸出-輸出信實制約(OO-faithfulness constraint)之間的排列順序而得到預測。

English Abstract

This paper examines the tone sandhi phenomenon in the Tibeto-Berman language of Hakha-Lai, which is special for the complex interactions among its elementary rules. The rule interactions in Hakha-Lai lead to both left-to-right and right-to-left rule directionalities in sequences of three or more tones. The rule application directionalities, however, appear to be ungoverned, as none of the principles proposed to date that may contribute to determining directionalities can account for them. In this paper, I argue that the tone sandhi operation directionalities in Hakha-Lai are by no means ungoverned. Normally tone sandhi operates from right to left for identity reasons. This is forced by the IDENT-BOT constraint. The right-to-left direction is sacrificed only when such direction would result in output forms that contain marked sequences or tonal changes at the prominent position, which are forbidden by U[AGREE-t and IDENT-IO-T-L respectively. Thus, the directionalities of tone sandhi operation in Hakha-Lai are naturally predicted by the interaction of the IDENT-BOT constraint, the U[AGREE-t constraint, and the IDENT-IO-T-L constraint, where IDENT-BOT must be dominated by the latter two constraints.

Topic Category 人文學 > 語言學
  1. Chen, Matthew Y.(2004).Changting Hakka tone sandhi: Analytical challenges.Language and Linguistics,5(4),799-822.
  2. Lin, Hui-shan.(2005).Directionality in Chengdu tone sandhi.Paper for the 13th Annual Meeting of the International Association for Chinese Linguistics,The Netherlands:
  3. Lin, Hui-shan.(2004).Boshan tone sandhi.Taiwan Journal of Linguistics,2(2),75-126.
  4. Bao, Zhiming.(1990).On the Nature of Tone.New York & Oxford:Oxford University Press.
  5. Bao, Zhiming.(2003).Tone, accent, and stress in Chinese.Journal of Linguistics,39,147-166.
  6. Beckman, Jill N.(1998).PhD Dissertation.University of Massachusetts Amherst.
  7. Benua Laura.(1997).Amherst,University of Massachusetts.
  8. Benua Laura.,J. Beckman,L. Walsh-Dickey,S. Urbanczyk (eds.)(1995).Identity effects in morphological truncation.University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers in Linguistics: Papers in Optimality Theory,77-136.
  9. Chen, Matthew Y.(2000).Tone Sandhi: Patterns across Chinese Dialects.Oxford University Press.
  10. Chen, Matthew Y.(1987).A symposium on Tianjin tone sandhi: introductory remarks.Journal of Chinese Linguistics,15,223-227.
  11. Chen, Matthew Y.,Ben Hermans,Marc van Oostendorp (eds.)(1999).The Derivational Residue in Phonological Optimality Theory.
  12. Cheng, Chin Chuan.(1973).A Synchronic Phonology of Beijing Mandarin Chinese.Mouton & Co:Paris.
  13. Clements, G. N.,D. J. Napol (ed.)(1978).Elements of Tone, Stress, and Intonation.Washington, D. C:Georgetown University Press.
  14. De Lacy, Paul.(2002).The interaction of tone and stress in Optimality Theory.Phonology.
  15. Duanmu, San.(1994).Against contour tone units.Linguistic Inquiry,25(4),555-608.
  16. Duanmu, San.(1997).Recursive constraint evaluation in Optimality Theory: evidence from cyclic compounds in Shanghai.Natural Language and Linguistics Theory,15,465-507.
  17. Duanmu, San.(1990).Cambridge,MIT.
  18. Gerken, LouAnn.(1996).Prosodic structure in young children`s language production.Language,72(4),683-711.
  19. Gerken, LouAnn.(1996).Prosody`s role in language acquision and adult parsing.Journal of Psycholinguistic Research,25(2),345-356.
  20. Goldsmith, John A.(1976).Cambridge,MIT.
  21. Hayes, Bruce.,Inkelas,Zec (eds.)(1990).The Phonology Syntax Connection.
  22. Horwood, Graham.(2000).Anti-Identity and Taiwanese Tone Sandhi.Rutgers University.
  23. Howard, Irwin.(1972).Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  24. Hsiao, E. Yuchau.(1991).Syntax, Rhythm and Tone: A Triangular Relationship.Taipei:Crane Publishing Co.
  25. Hsiao, E. Yuchau.(2000).Trisyllabic and quadrasyllabic Hakka tone sandhi: an Optimality Theory perspective.Proceedings of the NCCU Teachers` Conference on Linguistics Research
  26. Hsiao, E. Yuchau.(1996).Optimality and the syntax-phonology interface.NSC Report No.
  27. Hsu, Kuei-ping.(1996).National Tsing Hua University.
  28. Hung, Tony T. N.(1987).Tianjin tone sandhi: towards a unified approach.Journal of Chinese Linguistics,15,274-305.
  29. Hyman, Larry M.,Kenneth VanBik.(2002).Tone and syllable structure in Hakha Lai.To appear in Proceedings of Berkeley Linguistic Society 28
  30. Hyman, Larry M.,Kenneth VanBik.(2004).Output problems in Hakha Lai – or: What`s (not) Chinese about directional tone sandhi?.Language and Linguistics,5(4),821-861.
  31. Hyman, Larry M.,Kenneth VanBik.(2002).Tone and stem2-formation in Hakha-Lai.Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area,25(1)
  32. Hyman, Larry.,K. Snider,H. van der Hulst (eds.)(1993).The Phonology of Tone: the Representation of Tonal Register.Berlin:Mouton de Gruyter.
  33. Markedness and word structure: OCP effects in Japanese
  34. Ito, Junko,Yoshihisa Kitagawa,Armin Mester.(1996).Prosodic faithfulness and correspondence: evidence from a Japanese argot.Journal of East Asian Linguistics,5,217-294.
  35. Kager, Rene.(1999).Optimality Theory.Australia:Cambridge University Press.
  36. Kager, Rene.,Ben Hermans,Marc van Oostendorp (eds.)(1999).The Derivational Residue in Phonological Optimality Theory.John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  37. Kaye, Jonathan.(1974).Opacity and recoverability in phonology.Canadian Journal of Linguistics,19,134-149.
  38. Kenstowicz, Michael.(1995).Cyclic vs. non-cyclic constraint evaluation.Phonology,12,397-436.
  39. Kenstowicz, Michael.(1994).The RuCCS Technical Research PaperThe RuCCS Technical Research Paper,未出版
  40. Kenstowicz, Michael.,J. Durand,B. Laks (eds.)(1997).Current Trends in Phonology: Models and Methods.Salford:University of Salford.
  41. Kenstowicz, Michael,Charles Kisseberth.(1977).Topics in Phonological Theory.New York:Academic Press.
  42. Kiparsky, Paul.,O. Fujimura (ed.)(1973).Three Dimensions of Linguistic Theory.Tokyo:Taikusha.
  43. Leben, W.(1973).Suprasegemental Phonology.Cambridge:PhD Dissertation, MIT.
  44. Li, X. J.,S. X. Liu.(1985).Tone sandhi in the Tianjin dialect.Chinese Language,1,76-80.
  45. Lin, Hui-shan.(2000).An Optimality Theoretic approach to Beijing Mandarin tone sandhi.Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of the Association of Chinese Phonology,Taiwan:
  46. Lin, Hui-shan.(2003).Identity and Tianjin tone sandhi.Paper presented at the 36th ICSTLL Conference,Australia:
  47. Lin, Hui-shan.(2000).Layered OCP, unparsed preposition and local constraint conjunction in Beijing Mandarin tone sandhi.Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics,Thailand:
  48. Lin, Hui-shan.(2005).Tone sandhi in Chengdu.Paper for the 21th Annual Conference of the Association of Chinese Phonology,Taiwan:
  49. Lin, Hui-shan.(2005).Prosodic correspondence in tone sandhi.UST Working Papers In Linguistics,1,229-265.
  50. Lin, Hui-shan.(2005).Conflicting directionalities in Tianjin tone sandhi.
  51. Lin, Hui-shan.(2002).Tianjin tone sandhi. Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Chinese Languages and Linguistics.Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
  52. Lin, Hui-shan.(2000).Taiwan,National Chengchi University.
  53. Lin, Hui-shan.(2004).Taiwan,National Tsing Hua University.
  54. Lindfield, Kimberly C.,Arthur Wingfield,Harold Goodglass.(1999).The contribution of prosody to spoken word recognition.Applied Psycholinguistics,22,395-405.
  55. Liu, Jocelyn Su-fung.(1987).University of Texas at Austin.
  56. Lombardi, Linda. (ed.)(2001).Segmental Phonology in Optimality Theory: Constraints and Representations.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
  57. Extensions of faithfulness: Rotuman revisited
  58. McCarthy, John.(1997).Process specific constraints in Optimality Theory.Linguistic Inquiry,28,231-251.
  59. McCarthy, John.(1999).Sympathy and phonological opacity.Phonology,16,331-399.
  60. McCarthy, John.,Goldsmith (ed.)(1995).The Handbook of Phonological Theory.Oxford:Blackwell.
  61. McCarthy, John,Alan Prince.(1993).Report no.New Brunswick, NJ:Rutgers University Center for Cognitive Science.
  62. McCarthy, John,Alan Prince.(1994).The emergence of the unmarked: optimality in Prosodic Morphology.Proceedings of the 24th North East Linguistic Society.
  63. McCarthy, John,Alan Prince.,G. Booij,J. Van Marle (eds.)(1993).Year Book of Morphology.Dordrecht:Kluwer.
  64. McCarthy, John,Alan Prince.,Jill Beckman,Laura Walsh Dickey,Suzanne Urbanczyk (eds.)(1995).Faithfulness and reduplicative identity.University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers in Linguistics 18: Papers in Optimality Theory,249-384.
  65. McCarthy, John,Alan Prince.,Kager, Hulst,Zonneveld (eds)(1999).The Prosody-morphology Interface.Cambridge University Press.
  66. Nespor, M.,I. Vogel.(1986).Prosodic Phonology.Dordrecht:Foris.
  67. Orgun, Orhan.(1996).Correspondence and identity constraints in two-level Optimality Theory.in Proceedings of the 14th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics
  68. Prince, Alan,Paul Smolensky.(1993).Optimality Theory: Constraint Interaction in Generative Grammar.Boulder:Rutgers University and University of Colorado.
  69. Radford, Andrew.(1988).Transformational Grammar: A first Course.Cambridge:
  70. Sanderman, Angelien A.,Rene Collier.(1997).Prosodic phrasing and comprehension.Langauge and Speech,40(4),391-409.
  71. Selkirk, Elizabeth.(1984).Phonology and Syntax: The Relation Between Sound and Structure.The MIT Press.
  72. Selkirk, Elizabeth.(1995).University of Massachusetts Occasional Paper 18: Papers in Optimality Theory.Amherst:University of Massachusetts.
  73. Selkirk, Elizabeth.(1986).On derived domains in sentence phonology.Phonology Year Book,3,371-405.
  74. Shattuck-Hufnagel, Stefanie,Alice E. Turk.(1996).A prosody tutorial for investigators of auditory sentence processing.Journal of Psycholinguistic Research,25,193-247.
  75. Shi, Feng.(1990).Studies in Tone and Stops.Beijing University Press.
  76. Shi, Feng.(1990).Studies in Tone and Stops.Beijing University Press.
  77. Shih, Chi-lin.(1986).UCSD.
  78. Snider, Keith L.(1999).The Geometry and Features of Tone.Arlington:Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas.
  79. Snider, Keith L.(1990).Tonal upstep in Krachi: evidence for a register tier.Language,66,453-474.
  80. Speer, Shari R.,Chi-lin Shih,Maria L. Slowiaczek.(1989).Prosodic structure in language understanding: evidence from tone sandhi in Beijing Mandarin.Language and Speech,32(4),337-354.
  81. Speer, Shari R.,Margaret M Kjelgaard,Kathryn M. Dobroth.(1996).The influence of prosodic structure on the resolution of temporary syntactic closure ambiguities.Journal of Psycholinguistic Research,25(2),249-271.
  82. Speer, Shari R.,Robert G. Crowder,Lisa M. Thomas.(1993).Prosodic Structure and sentence recognition.Journal of Memory and Language,32,336-358.
  83. Steriade, D.(1997).Phonetics in phonology: the case of laryngeal neutralization.Department of Linguistics, UCLA.
  84. Tan, Fu.(1987).Tone sandhi in the Tianjin dialect.Journal of Chinese Linguistics,15,228-246.
  85. Truckenbrodt, Hubert.(1990).On the relation between syntactic phrases and phonological phrases.Linguistic Inquiry,30(2),219-255.
  86. Truckenbrodt, Hubert.(1994).The OCP, underspecification, and articulatory faithfulness.MIT Working Papers in Linguistics,21,355-371.
  87. Tsay, Jane,James Myers.(1996).Taiwanese tone sandhi as allomorph selection.Berkeley Linguistics Society,22,394-405.
  88. Wang, William S-Y.(1967).Phonological Features of Tone.International Journal of American Linguistics,33(2),93-150.
  89. Yip, Moira.(2002).Tone.Cambridge University Press.
  90. Yip, Moira.(2002).Phonological markedness and allomorph selection in Zahao.Paper for the 8th International Symposium on Chinese Languages and Linguistics
  91. Yip, Moira.(1989).Contour tones.Phonology,6,149-174.
  92. Yip, Moira.(1980).Cambridge, MA,MIT.
  93. Yip, Moira.,Goldsmith, John (ed.)(1995).Tone in East Asian languages.Blackwell.
  94. Zhang Ning.(1997).The avoidance of the third tone sandhi in Beijing Mandarin Chinese.Journal of East Asian Linguistics,6,293-338.
  95. Zhang Zheng Sheng.(1998).the Ohio State University.
  96. Zhang, Zheng Sheng.(1987).The paradox of Tianjin: another look.Journal of Chinese Linguistics,15,247-273.
  97. Zoll, Cheryl.(1998).Positional markedness, positional faithfulness, and licensing.Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Times Cited
  1. 陳煒翰(2012)。以優選理論分析兩個客語方言之連讀變調。政治大學語言學研究所學位論文。2012。1-145。