Preparing the new normal: developing teaching, social and cognitive presence in post-pandemic language learning

Translated Titles





Kathryn Murphy-Judy

Key Words

emergency remote teaching (ERT) ; online language teaching (OLT) ; presence ; 緊急遠距教學(ERT) ; 線上語言教學(OLT) ; 存在感



Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

24期(2020 / 12 / 01)

Page #

1 - 14

Content Language


Chinese Abstract

The recent pandemic threw language educators into a flurry of activity to adapt to the new reality of forced distance teaching and learning. This delivery of language education is called emergency remote teaching (ERT) and should not be confused with true online language teaching (OLT). Conversion time was severely limited in ERT, often less than one week, and teachers had little time to rethink and retool their materials. Still, one of the most important strategies from OLT could and should have been considered and implemented: attention to the three presences. Teaching, social and cognitive presences are described and easy pivots from face-to-face or hybrid/blended learning to fully remote are suggested.

English Abstract


Topic Category 人文學 > 語言學
人文學 > 外國文學
  1. Alatis, J.(Ed.)(1980).Current issues in bilingual education.Washington D.C.:Georgetown University Press.
  2. Alvarez, A., Jr(2020).The phenomenon of learning at a distance through emergency remote teaching amidst the pandemic crisis.Asian Journal of Distance Education,15(1),144-153.
  3. American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. (2017). Use of the target language in language learning. https://www.actfl.org/guiding-principles/use-target-language-language-learning
  4. Anderson, T.,Rourke, L.,Garrison, D.R.,Archer, W.(2001).Assessing teaching presence in a computer conferencing context.Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks,5(2)
  5. Anzzolin, K. (2020, September 28). Lion taming in a pandemic. FLTMag. https://fltmag.com/lion-taming-in-a-pandemic/.
  6. Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST). (2018). Universal design for learning guidelines (Version 2.2). http://udlguidelines.cast.org
  7. Douglas Fir Group(2016).A transdisciplinary framework for SLA in a multilingual world.The Modern Language Journal,100(Suppl 2016),19-47.
  8. Gacs, A.,Goertler, S.,Spasova, S.(2020).Planned online language education versus crisis‐prompted online language teaching: Lessons for the future.Foreign Language Annals,53(2),380-392.
  9. Garrett-Rucks, Paula,Osborn, Terry A.(2016).Intercultural Competence in Instructed Language Learning (Contemporary language education).Charlotte, NC:Information Age Publishing, Incorporated.
  10. Garrison, D.(2007).Online community of inquiry review: Social, cognitive, and teaching presence issues.Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks,11
  11. Garrison, D. R.(2006).Online collaboration principles.Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks,10(1),25-34.
  12. Garrison, D. R.(2006).,未出版
  13. Glisan E. W.,Donato, R.(2017).Enacting the work of language instruction: High leverage teaching practices.Alexandria, VA:The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages.
  14. Hart, C.(2012).Factors associated with student persistence in an online program of study: A review of the literature.Journal of Interactive Online Learning,11(1),19-42.
  15. Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020, March 27). The difference between emergency remote teaching and online teaching. Educause Review. Retrieved from https://er.educause.edu/articles/2020/3/the‐difference‐between‐emergency‐remote‐teaching‐and‐online‐learning
  16. Krashen, S.(1981).Second language acquisition and second language lLearning.Oxford:Pergamon.
  17. Krashen, S.(1985).The input hypothesis: Issues and implications.New York, NY:Longman.
  18. Pacansky-Brock, M.(2015).How to humanize your online class. T&L Innovations. Retrieved from https://brocansky.com/humanizing-infographic
  19. Rapanta, C.,Botturi, L.,Goodyear, P.(2020).Online University Teaching During and After the Covid-19 Crisis: Refocusing Teacher Presence and Learning Activity.Postdigit Sci Educ,2,923-945.
  20. Russell, V.,Murphy-Judy, K.(2021).Teaching Language Online: A Guide for Designing, Developing, and Delivering Online, Blended, and Flipped Language Courses.New York:Routledge.
  21. Stanger, A. (2020, March 19). "Make All Courses Pass/Fail Now," Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from https://www.chronicle.com/article/Make-All-Courses-Pass-Fail-Now/248281
  22. Swaffar, J.(1999).The Case for Foreign Languages as a Discipline.Profession,155-167.
  23. Swaffar, J.,Arens, Katherine(2005).Remapping the foreign language curriculum : An approach through multiple literacies (Teaching languages, literatures, and cultures).New York:Modern Language Association of America.
  24. Wiggins, G.,McTighe, J.(2005).Understanding by design.Alexandria:Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.