Title

以泰勒尊重自然理論為基礎的環境倫理教育

Translated Titles

An Environmental Ethics Education Based on Taylor's "Respect for Nature" Theory

Authors

王冠生(Wang, Kuan-Sheng)

Key Words

泰勒 ; 生命中心主義 ; 固有價值 ; 種際公正 ; 環境倫理 ; Paul Taylor ; biocentrism ; inherent worth ; species impartiality ; environmental ethics

PublicationName

關渡通識學刊

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

13期(2018 / 04 / 30)

Page #

1 - 25

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

本文探討當代生命中心主義環境倫理學家保羅.泰勒的環境倫理學,並根據泰勒理論設計環境倫理學課程。泰勒主張動物與植物具有固有價值,人類不可為了提升福祉而任意犧牲具有生命的動植物。為了解決人類與動植物之間的利益衝突,泰勒提出五項環境倫理原則,包括自衛原則、相稱原則、最小錯誤原則、分配正義原則、補償正義原則,這五項原則可處理人類之基本利益及非基本利益、與動植物之基本利益及非基本利益之間的衝突。除了這五項原則之外,泰勒還提出不傷害規則、不干擾規則、誠信規則,以及忍耐、節制、無私、憐憫心、關心、慈善心、同情心、良心、正直、勇氣、堅忍、盡責等倫理素養,以強化人類環境倫理的道德信念。泰勒認為人類與動植物皆是生態系中的成員,在尊重自然的前提下,人類應該追求人類文明與自然之間的和諧。這個追尋和諧共處的過程,是追尋種際正義的過程, 也是人類實踐理性與自律的倫理過程。筆者認為,在當今日益重視環境教育與環境倫理的時代,泰勒的生命中心主義環境倫理學不僅在理論層次提供許多反思的架構,在實踐層面也提供許多解決現實問題的原則。對於提升現代公民的環境素養,具有高度的啟發性作用。因此筆者將泰勒的理論落實於環境倫理學課程中,設計環境倫理經典閱讀、環境倫理議題討論、環境倫理實作活動。從學生回饋的問卷顯示,以泰勒理論為基礎所設計的環境倫理學課程,的確有助於提升同學的環境倫理素養。

English Abstract

This paper intends to explore modern life-centered environmental philosopher Paul W. Taylor’s principles of environmental ethics. Taylor asserts that animals and plants have inherent worth as human being. Human can’t arbitrarily sacrifice animals and plants for promoting human welfare. In order to resolve the conflicts between human being and non- human being, Taylor argues five primary principles of environmental ethics as the principle of defense, the principle of proportionality, the principle of minimum wrong, the principle of distributive justice, the principle of restitutive justice. Besides, Taylor also presents the rule of nonmaleference, the rule of noninterference, the rule of fidelity, and some environmental virtues as patience, temperance, disinterestedness, compassion, caring, benevolence, sympathy, conscientiousness, integrity, courage, perseverance, steadfastness in duty to strengthen human moral attitude for protecting nature. Taylor argues that human should pursue an ideal harmony between nature and human civilization because human being and non- human being are all members of the biotic community. The process of pursuing the ideal harmony is the process of pursuing the species impartiality. It is also the process of practicing human rationality and autonomy

Topic Category 社會科學 > 教育學