Translated Titles

The Dynamic Senders of Electronic Word-of-Mouth (eWOM) via the Innovation Diffusion Model: Using the Movies Industry as an Example




林郁翔(Yu-Hsiang Lin);游文婷(Wen-Ting Yu)

Key Words

網路口碑傳播者 ; 創新擴散模型 ; 網路口碑動機 ; 價值觀 ; eWOM disseminator ; innovation diffusion model ; eWOM motivations ; values



Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

11卷1期(2015 / 04 / 01)

Page #

1 - 35

Content Language


Chinese Abstract


English Abstract

Many past studies related to the types of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) disseminators conduct surveys through the cross-sectional survey method, while overlooking the eWOM disseminatortypes from the dynamic perspective during the product diffusionprocess. This study applies the innovators and imitators' perspectives from the Bass innovation diffusion model to explore the motivations affecting word-of-mouth dissemination by eWOM disseminators and their characteristics in different stages and compare the similarities and differences. We surveyed 325 consumers who had disseminated movie eWOM and conducted logistics regression analysis and ANOVA to test our hypotheses. The results show that despite the many similarities in the eWOM motivations and characteristics of eWOM disseminators (i.e. innovators and imitators) in different stages, various differences existed. Compared to imitators, positive self-enhancement, company advocacies, emphasis for individuals' intrinsic values (such as seeking excitement and having higher self-respect) have a higher impact on innovators. Venting negative feelings, caring for others, strengthening social benefits, emphasis for individuals' extrinsic values (such as a sense of security and belongingness), and interpersonal relationship values (such as emphasis for relationships with others and fun and enjoyment of life) have a higher impact on imitators. Finally, theoretical and practical implications are put forth to serve as a reference for follow-up research.

Topic Category 社會科學 > 經濟學
社會科學 > 管理學
  1. 林郁翔(2012)。病毒行銷行家:網路市場資訊傳播者。行銷科學學報,8(2),181-212。
  2. 彭台光、高月慈、林鉦棽(2006)。管理研究中的共同方法變異:問題本質、影響、測試與補救。管理學報,23(1),77-98。
  3. 林芬慧、張莉莉(2007 年4 月15 日),部落格寫下生命的經典行銷,經濟日報,第C2 版。
  4. Ahrens, J.,Coyle, J. R.,Strahilevitz, M. A.(2013).Electronic word of mouthThe effects of incentives on e-referrals bysenders and receivers.European Journal of Marketing,47(7),1034-1051.
  5. Alicke, M.D.,Braun, J.C.,Glor, J.E.,Klotz, K.L.,Magee, J.,Sederholm, H.,Siegel, R.(1992).Complaining Behavior in Social Interactions.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,18(3),286-295.
  6. Anderson, E. W.(1998).Customer satisfaction and word of mouth.Journal of Service Research,1(1),5-17.
  7. Bao, T.,Chang, T. L. S.(2014).Finding disseminators via electronic word of mouth message for effective marketing communications.Decision Support Systems
  8. Bass, F. M.(1969).A New Product Growth Model for Consumer Durables.Management Science,15(5),215-227.
  9. Belch, M. A.,Krentler, K. A.,Willis-Flurry, L. A.(2005).Teen internet mavens: influence in family decision making.Journal of Business Research,58(5),569-575.
  10. Bock, G. W.,Zmud, R. W.,Kim, Y. G.,Lee, J. N.(2005).Behavioral intention formation in knowledge sharing: Examining the roles of extrinsic motivators, social-psychological forces, and organizational climate.MIS Quarterly,29(1),87-111.
  11. Brown, J.,Broderick, A.J.,Lee, N.(2007).Word of mouth communication within online communities: conceptualizing the online social network.Journal of Interactive Marketing,21(3),2-20.
  12. Cantallops, A. S.,Salvi, F.(2014).New consumer behavior: A review of research on eWOM and hotels.International Journal of Hospitality Management,36(1),41-51.
  13. Cheung, C. M. K.,Lee, M. K. O.,Rabjohn, N.(2008).The impact of electronic word-of-mouth: the adoption of online opinions in online customer communities.Internet Research,18(3),229-247.
  14. Cheung, C. M. K.,Thadani, D. R.(2012).The impact of electronic word-of-mouth communication: A literature analysis and integrative model.Decision Support Systems,54(1),461-470.
  15. Cheung, C. M. K.,Xiao, S. B.,Liu, I. L. B.(2012).The impact of observational learning and electronic word of mouth on consumer purchase decisions: the moderating role of consumer expertise and consumer involvement.2012 45thHawaii International Conference on System Sciences,Hawaii:
  16. Chu, S. C.,Kamal, S.(2008).The effect of perceived blogger credibility and argument quality on message elaboration and brand attitudes: an exploratory study.Journal of Interactive Advertising,8(2),26-37.
  17. Churchill, G. A. Jr.(1979).A Paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs.Journal of Marketing Research,16(1),64-73.
  18. d'Astous, A.,Touil, N.(1999).Consumer evaluations of movies on the basis of critics' judgments.Psychology and Marketing,16(8),677-694.
  19. de Angelis, M.,Bonezzi, A.,Peluso, A.M.,Rucker, D.D.,Costabile, M.(2012).On braggarts and gossips: a self-enhancement account of word-of-mouth generation and transmission.Journal of Marketing Research,49(4),551-563.
  20. de Valck, K.,Van Bruggen, G.H.,Wierenga, B.(2009).Virtual communities: a marketing perspective.Decision Support Systems,47(3),185-203.
  21. Doh, S. J.,Hwang, J. S.(2009).How consumers evaluate eWOM (electronic word-of-mouth) messages.Cyberpsychology & Behavior,12(2),193-197.
  22. Dunning, D. A.(Ed.)(2011).Frontiers of social psychology: Social motivation.NY:Psychology Press.
  23. Engel, J.F.,Blackwell, R.D.,Miniard, P.W.(1993).Consumer Behavior.Fort Worth:DrydenPress.
  24. Eva, M.,Yolanda, P.,Carlos, F.(1998).The acceptance and diffusion of new consumer durables: differences between first and last adopters.The Journal of Consumer Marketing,15(4),323-342.
  25. Feick, L. F.,Price L. L.(1987).The market maven: a diffuser ofmarketplace information.Journal of Marketing,51(1),83-97.
  26. Fernández-Durán, J. J.(2014).Modeling seasonal effects in the Bass Forecasting Diffusion Model.Technological Forecasting and Social Change,88(4),251-264.
  27. Gatigon, H.,Robertson, S. T.(1985).A Propositional Inventory for New Diffusion Research.Journal of Consumer Research,11(4),849-867.
  28. Goldsmith, R. E.,Hofacker, C. F.(1991).Measuring Consumer Innovativeness.Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,19(3),209-221.
  29. Grotevant, H. D.(1987).Toward a process model of identity formation.Journal of Adolescent Research,2(3),203-222.
  30. Hair, J. F.,Anderson, R. E.,Tatham, R. L.,Black, W. C.(1998).Multivariate data analysis.Upper Saddle River, NJ:Prentice-Hall.
  31. Hennig-Thurau, T.,Gwinner, K. P.,Walsh, G.,Gremler, D. D.(2004).Electronic Word-of-Mouth via Consumer-Opinion Platforms: What Motivates Consumers to Articulate Themselves on the Internet?.Journal of Interactive Marketing,18(1),39-52.
  32. Hildbebrandt, L.(1991).Consumer Retail Satisfaction in Rural Areas: A Reanalysis of Survey Data.Journal of Economic Psychology,8(1),19-42.
  33. Ho, J. Y. C.,Dempsey, M.(2009).Viral marketing: motivations to forward online content.Journal of Business Research,62(9),1-7.
  34. Holland, J.,Stacey, M. B.(2001).Customer Participation in Creating Site BrandLoyalty.Journal of Interactive Marketing,15(4),34-45.
  35. Hsieh, J. K.,Hsieh, Y. C.,Tang, Y. C.(2012).Exploring the disseminating behaviors of eWOM marketing: persuasion in online video.Electronic Commerce Research,12(2),201-224.
  36. Jennifer, M. G.,Gareth, R. J.(1997).Experiencing work: values, attitude, and moods.Human Relations,50(4),393-416.
  37. Kahle, L. R.,Kennedy, P.(1989).Using the List of Values (LOV) to Understand Consumers.The Journal of Consumer Marketing,6(3),5-12.
  38. Kamins, M. A.,Kamal, G.(1994).Congruence between Spokesperson and Product Type: A Matchup Hypothesis Perspective: ABSTRACT.Psychology & Marketing,11(6),569-586.
  39. Kankanhalli, A.,Tan, B. C. Y.,Wei, K. K.(2005).Contributing knowledge to electronic knowledge repositories: An empirical investigation.Mis Quarterly,29(1),113-143.
  40. Kim, E.,Sung, Y.,Kang, H.(2014).Brand followers' retweeting behavior on Twitter: How brand relationships influence brand electronic word-of-mouth.Computers in Human Behavior,37(8),18-25.
  41. Kim, J.W.,Choi, J.,Han, K.(2004).Relationship Support Activities, CommunityCommitment, and Voluntary Behaviour in Online Communities.International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising,1(4),431-449.
  42. King, C. W.,Summers, J. O.(1970).Overlap of Opinion Leadership Across Consumer Product Categories.Journal of Marketing Research,7(1),43-50.
  43. Kiss, C.,Bichler, M.(2008).Identification of influencers - measuring influence in customer networks.Decision Support Systems,46(1),233-253.
  44. Lakhani, K. R.,Von Hippel, E.(2003).How open source software works: free user-to-user assistance.Research Policy,32(6),923-943.
  45. Lee, H.,Kim, S. G.,Park, H. W.,Kang, P.(2014).Pre-launch new product demand forecasting using the Bass model: A statistical and machine learning-based approach.Technological Forecasting and Social Change,86(3),49-64.
  46. Lee, J.,Park, D. H.,Han, I.(2008).The effect of negative online consumer reviews on product attitude: an information processing view Electronic Commerce.Research and Applications,7(3),341-352.
  47. Lee, M.,Youn, S.(2009).Electronic word of mouth (eWOM): how eWOM platforms influence consumer product judgement.International Journal of Advertising: The Quarterly Review of Marketing Communications,28(3),473-499.
  48. Li, F.,Du, T. C.(2011).Who is talking? An ontology-based opinion leader identification framework for word-of-mouth marketing in online social blogs.Decision Support Systems,51(1),190-197.
  49. Li, Y.,Zhao, H.,Yang, Y.(2012).The Study on the Preferences of Customer PersonalValues with Chinese Culture Background in Services.Physics Procedia,33,505-510.
  50. Liao, S. H.,Ho, H. h.,Yang, F. C.(2009).Ontology-based data mining approach implemented on exploring product and brand spectrum.Expert Systems with Applications,36(9),11730-11744.
  51. Liden, R. C.,Maslyn, J. M.(1998).Multidimensionality of leader-member exchange: An empirical assessment through scale development.Journal of Management,24(1),43-73.
  52. Lim, J.,Nam, C.,Kim, S.,Rhee, H.,Lee, E.,Lee, H.(2012).Forecasting 3G mobile subscription in China: A study based on stochastic frontier analysis and a Bass diffusion model.Telecommunications Policy,36(4),858-871.
  53. Lin, Y. H.,Fang, C. H.,Hsu, C. L.(2014).Determining uses and gratifications for mobile phone apps.International Workshop on Business Intelligences and Information Technologies in Enterprise,ZhangJiaJie, China:
  54. Mahajan, V.,Muller, E.,Srivastava, R. K.(1990).Determination of Adopter Categories by Using Innovation Diffusion Models.Journal of Marketing Research,27(1),37-50.
  55. Malhotra, N. K.,Kim, S. S.,Patil, A.(2006).Common Method Variance in IS Research: A Comparison of Alternative Approaches anda Reanalysis of Past Research.Management Science,52(12),1865-1883.
  56. Maslow, A. H.(1954).Motivation and personality.New York:Harper.
  57. McWilliam, G.(2000).Building Stronger Brands through Online Communities.Sloan Management Review,41(3),43-54.
  58. Mintz, S. M.(1995).Virtue ethics and accounting education.Issue in Accounting Education,10(2),247-267.
  59. Myers, J. H.,Robertson, T. S.(1972).Dimensions of opinion leadership.Journal of Marketing Research,9(1),41-46.
  60. Newcomb, T.M.(1953).An Approach to the Study of Communicative Acts.Psychological Review,60,393-404.
  61. Nunnally, J. C.(1978).Psychometric theory.New York, NY.:McGraw- Hill.
  62. Okazaki, S.(2009).Social influence model and electronic word of mouth.International Journal of Advertising,28(3),439-472.
  63. Oliver, R. L.,Swan, J. E.(1989).Consumer Perceptions of Interpersonal Equity and Satisfaction in Transactions: A Field Survey Approach.Journal of Marketing,53(2),21-35.
  64. Phelps, J. E.,Lewis, R.,Mobilio, L.,Perry, D.,Raman, N.(2004).Viral marketing or electronic word-of-mouth advertising:examining consumer responses and motivations to pass along email.Journal of Advertising Research,44(3),333-348.
  65. Pigg, K.E.,Crank, L.D.(2004).Building community social capital: the potential and promise of information and communications technologies.Journal of Community Informatics,1(1),58-73.
  66. Podsakoff, P. M.,Organ, D. W.(1986).Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects.Journal of Management,12(4),531-544.
  67. Richins, M. L.(1983).Negative word-of-mouth by dissatisfied customers: a pilot study.Journal of Marketing,47(1),68-78.
  68. Rogers, E. M.(1962).Diffusion of Innovations.New York:Free Press.
  69. Rogers, E. M.(2003).Diffusion of Innovations.New York:Free Press.
  70. Rokeach, M.(1973).The Nature of Human Values.New York:Free Press.
  71. Rosen, C. S.(2000).Integrating stage & continuum models to explain processing of exercise messages & exercise initiation among sedentary college students.Health Psychology,19(2),172-180.
  72. Schwartz, S. J.(Ed.),Luyckx, K.(Ed.),Vignoles, V. L.(Ed.)(2011).Handbook ofidentity theory and research.New York:Springer.
  73. Srinivasan, V. C.H.(1986).Mason, Nonlinear least squares estimation of new product diffusion models.Marketing Science,5(2),169-178.
  74. Sundaram, D. S.,Mitra, K.,Webster, C.(1998).Word of Mouth Communications: A Motivational Analysis.Advances in Consumer Research,25(1),527-531.
  75. Swaen, V.,Vanhamme, J.(2005).The use of corporate social responsibility arguments in communication campaigns: does source credibility matter?.Advances in Consumer Research,32(1),590-591.
  76. Swani, K.,Brown, B. P.,Milne, G. R.(2014).Should tweets differ for B2B and B2C? An analysis of Fortune 500 companies' Twitter communications.Industrial Marketing Management,43(5),873-881.
  77. Takada, H.,Jain, D.(1991).Cross-National analysis of Diffusion of Consumer Durable Goods in Pacific Rim Countries.Journal of Marketing,55(1),48-53.
  78. Turk, T.,Trkman, P.(2012).Bass model estimates for broadband diffusion in European countries.Technological Forecasting and Social Change,79(1),85-96.
  79. Wells, W. D.,Prensky, D.(1996).Consumer Behavior.NY:John Wiley and Sons Inc..
  80. Xia, L.,Bechwati, N.(2008).Word of mouse: the role of cognitive personalization in online consumer reviews.Journal of Interactive Marketing,9(1),3-13.
  81. Zhang, W.,Watts, S. A.(2008).Capitalizing on content: information adoption in two online communities.Journal of the Association for Information Systems,9(2),73-94.
  82. Zhu, F.,Zhang, X. M.(2010).Impact of online consumer reviews of sales: the moderating role of product and consumer characteristics.Journal of Marketing,74(2),133-148.
  83. 蔡瑤昇、呂文琴、高國書、郭宗麟(2011)。網路口碑特性與電影票房銷售之動態關係研究。中華管理評論,14(4),1-22。
Times Cited
  1. 劉立行、王承潔、丁原揚(2015)。以創新擴散理論探討臺灣北部民眾使用塑膠鈔票意願。中華印刷科技年報,2015,320-334。