Title

爭水與爭地-湖南大通湖天祜垸個案研究

Translated Titles

Fighting over Waters and Fighting over Land: The Construction of the Tianhu Embankment on Dongting Lake in Republican Hunan

Authors

黃永豪(Wing-Ho Wong)

Key Words

水利糾紛 ; 堤垸 ; 漁業 ; 洞庭湖 ; 天祜垸 ; irrigation dispute ; embankment ; fishery ; Dongting Lake ; Tianhu Embankment

PublicationName

歷史人類學學刊

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

11卷1期(2013 / 04 / 01)

Page #

89 - 114

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

1930年代至1940年代的湖南洞庭湖天祜垸的糾紛, 是民國年間湖南省重大水利糾紛,它涉及了湖南省內各方的爭奪,也涉及了湖北與湖南的對立,甚至涉及了地方與中央的關係。本文的目的是要重新審視這次糾紛,從而指出,在洞庭湖地區,農業利益和漁業利益是糾纏在一起的,開墾挽回者往往也擁有漁業利益,但是,參與修築者往往宣稱是要發展農業,建設農場,以民間與政府的正統「語言」,建構其控制地方的權力和合法的地位。而有些湖主不是向人們展示其為現代化的漁場的經營者,便是宣稱其為陸上鄉民的代表。「陸上人」成為發展漁業經濟者的身份,推動「農業經濟」成為爭取漁業資源的手段。因此,雖然在1930年代農村經濟衰退,人們所追求的是洞庭湖的漁業經濟,但參與修築天祐境者仍用政府的正統文化、符號和語言,建構「陸上人」的身份,增強自己的地位與權力。開墾堤境不單是把湖面發展成農田,與水爭地,也是爭奪境田旁邊的湖面權和漁業利益。人們是「爭水」,卻是以「爭地」的形象展現出來,漁業經濟的問題,隱藏於農業經濟的外表之下。

English Abstract

The dispute over the construction of Tianhu Embankment on Dongting Lake in the 1930s and 1940s was among the most serious irrigation disputes in Republican- era Hunan. It reveals conflicts among different interest groups in Hunan and between Hunan and Hubei, and also illustrates the relationship between the provincial and central governments. This article re- examines the dispute and argues that what appear to be the agricultural interests in the dispute were actually inseparable from fishery interests. Investors in the Tianhu project, who were mostly fishery owners, claimed that the project would "contribute to agricultural development", an official discourse that helped them strengthen and legitimize their status in local society. Other involved parties who had ownership rights over lake waters claimed to be managers of modem fishery enterprises or to be representing local residents. They thus took on an identity as residents of the land surrounding the lake, and similarly sought benefits under the pretext of pursuing agricultural development. Hence even as their economic interests shifted to fishing during the agricultural recession of the 1930s, investors in the Tianhu embankment project continued to adopt traditional cultural symbols and language and represented themselves as "land dwellers" in order to strengthen their status and power. The embankment project was intended not only to reclaim farm land from the lake waters but also to assert rights over the lake's fishery. The struggle for control of the lake was disguised as a struggle for land reclamation, and the significance of the fishery was obscured under the label of agricultural development.

Topic Category 人文學 > 歷史學
人文學 > 人類學及族群研究