Title

殷商統治者屬外來的人種-試論在中華文明形成階段中族群的多元性

Translated Titles

The Shang Dynasty Rulers were A Migrant Ethnicity: Ethnic Diversity in the Formative Stage of Chinese Civilization

Authors

郭靜云(Olga Gorodetskaya)

Key Words

殷商王族 ; 體質人類學 ; 殷商考古 ; 上古族群流動 ; 甲骨文 ; Shang ruling elites ; physical anthropology ; archaeology of the Shang dynasty ; ancient migrations ; oracle bones

PublicationName

歷史人類學學刊

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

11卷2期(2013 / 10 / 01)

Page #

1 - 21

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

近幾十年考古發掘顯示,長江、淮河、漢江流域是國家文明最早形成的地區。在距今5000餘年前的漢江下游地區,已有許多大小城邦存在,他們彼此互相結合,形成城邦聯盟的國家結構,同時,在華北地區,反而可以觀察到族群流動不穩定的情況。然而,到了距今3500年前左右,殷墟建都後,華北族群便逐步掌握了政權,使得南方文明在後來傳世文獻所載的「正統歷史」中,故意被敘述為次要的、非主導性的文明。實際上,殷墟考古資料顯示了當時文明的多元性,殷墟所發現的器物來源頗廣,南跨長江,北跨草原森林地帶,西跨四川、甘肅,東到海洋。殷商時代是許多中國傳統的源頭,也有最早的漢字文明。殷商應該是中國歷史上最早的集權大國,其跨越了族群文化的範圍,涵蓋了不同生活方式、文化傳統和語言的地域。殷商政權囊括了原有的許多城邦與國家,形成規模龐大的多元文明,是故,可以被稱為「上古帝國」。同時,殷商王族所用的新兵器、馬車等標誌物,都指出殷商統治者的文化背景並非本土的,而來自北方草原的成分很明顯。語言學的研究亦顯示,殷商語言乃是源於阿爾泰語系的母音。本文則擬再用體質人類學的資料進行研究,呈現出中華文明之形成,與北方草原族群有看莫大的密切關係,並進一步辯證上古殷商帝國的統治者,對於黃河南岸、江河平原的先民來說,便是屬於狄戎之類的族群。

English Abstract

Recent archaeological discoveries have shown that Chinese civilization first emerged in the river basins of the Yangtze and its northern tributaries, the Huai and Han. Some five thousand years ago the lower Han basin already had multiplicities that integrated and allied with one another form state structures. In this period the inhabitants of what is now north China were mostly nomadic and the political structure of the region was fluid. Some thirty-five hundred years ago, more complex forms of political authority gradually developed in north China. One consequence of this was that southern cultures were relegated to a secondary and subordinate role in the historical orthodoxy that developed subsequently. Archaeological investigation of Shang sites at Anyang reveals the diversity of cultural elements in Shang culture. Objects excavated as Shang sites come from very broad origins, extending south beyond the Yangtze, to the forests and steppes in the north, to Sichuan and Gansu in the west, and to the sea in the east. The Shang period was the source of many elements of Chinese tradition, including the earliest use of Chinese characters. Shang should be considered the first politically centralized state; transcending the limits of a single ethnicity, encompassing places with different styles of life, cultural traditions and languages. Political authority was exercised over numerous earlier city-states. It thus formed an enormous diverse civilization, earning it the title of "ancient empire" The new weapons and horse-carriage technology that were the symbols of the Shang ruling clan demonstrate that they were not native to the region, and that a considerable element of Shang culture came from the northern steppe. Linguistic data also shows that the language of Shang retained significant Altaic elements. This article uses physical anthropological data to explore the close links between the early formation of Chinese civilization and the peoples of the northern steppe. It argues further that from the perspective of the inhabitants of the Yellow River plain, the rulers of the ancient Shang empire belonged to an ethnic group from elsewhere.

Topic Category 人文學 > 歷史學
人文學 > 人類學及族群研究