Title

明代湖南宜章三堡的設立與屯田之展開

Translated Titles

The Establishment of Three Military Farm Colony Settlements (tunpu) and the Opening up of Military Colony Fields (tuntian) in Hunan in the Ming Dynasty

Authors

毛帥(Shuai Mao)

Key Words

衛所 ; 屯堡 ; 南嶺 ; 基層社會 ; Ming garrisons (weisuo) ; military colony settlements (tunpu) ; Nanling ; local society ; civilian-military interaction

PublicationName

歷史人類學學刊

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

12卷2期(2014 / 10 / 01)

Page #

1 - 50

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

本文擬在辨析宜章南部黃沙、栗源、笆籬三堡設置的基礎上,看重探討明代衛所制度與地方州縣的互動關係。明初,在平定南嶺山區的叛亂後,政府開始有序地在郴桂南部佈署邊防,宜章南部三堡就是在這一大背景下所設立。三堡軍人最初只是築堡戍守,宣德年間下屯令實施後,在衛軍旗打著佔用里民故絕地方的旗號,隨屯而居,與民居錯落相間。伴隨著在衛軍旗的發展,原生聚落形態受到不少衝擊,軍民矛盾日益激化。之後憑藉正德年間平定郴桂南部大動亂之機,一方面軍衛極力維護與州縣關係較密切的「良民村舍」,另一方面一些州縣原有聚落趁機進入軍衛系統。與此相表裡的是,軍衛也逐漸融入當地社會。而軍衛在原有基層社會的發展,不免會損及州縣利益。到萬曆時,宜章知縣黃應芳重新編訂里甲,清丈屯田。此後,三堡的發展進入平穩期,以「屯田所」為組織的單位開始出現,這一格局直至清初衛所改制,仍對當地社會影響巨大。本文希望通過以上個案考察,充份展示明代衛所軍屯制度的諸多變化,並從空間的層面把握衛所與州縣基層村莊之間的複雜關係,以推進衛所制度與基層社會的研究。

English Abstract

This article examines the establishment of three military farm colony settlements (tunpu) in Yizhang, Hunan, in order to explore the interaction of the military garrison (weisuo) and civilian administration systems in the Ming dynasty. In the early Ming dynasty, after the pacification of rebellions in the Nanling mountain region, the Ming government began a systematic deployment of military defenses. It was in this context that the three tunpu were established. The earliest soldiers of the tunpu were responsible for constructing and later manning fortifications. In the Xuande period (1426-1435), the soldiers were ordered to turn to cultivation. They seized lands belonging to local residents under the pretext of reclaiming abandoned lands. Thereafter they lived in the tunpu colonies, interspersed with local civilians. The expansion of the military presence threatened the existing social order, and conflicts between soldiers and civilians intensified. After the pacification of further rebellions in the region in the early sixteenth century, the military actively protected "good civilian villages" which had close relations with the civilian county administration. Meanwhile, some villages originally under civilian administration tried to become part of the military administrative system. The military thus gradually became integrated into local society. Moreover the presence of the military inevitably impacted the interests of the county government. In the late sixteenth century, after the magistrate of Yizhang ordered the re- registration of the populace and resurveying of lands, the tunpu system entered a phase of stability. Colony battalions emerged as an important unit of social organization. This persisted until the Qing reform of the military system, with profound consequences.

Topic Category 人文學 > 歷史學
人文學 > 人類學及族群研究