Title

試論明清兩廣鹽區的潮橋體系

Translated Titles

The Chaozhou Salt Trade System in Ming and Qing

Authors

段雪玉(Xueyu Duan)

Key Words

明清時期 ; 兩廣鹽區 ; 潮橋體系 ; 鹽商 ; 廣濟橋 ; 地方財政 ; Ming and Qing ; salt merchants ; Chaozhou ; local finance

PublicationName

歷史人類學學刊

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

13卷2期(2015 / 10 / 01)

Page #

39 - 77

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

明代天順以後,隨著廣鹽越境的合法化,潮州府的海鹽以廣濟橋為樞紐,憑藉韓江流域地區的水陸要道,北銷閩、贛等界鄰府州縣,嘉靖、萬曆時期兩廣鹽區形成潮橋體系。明代潮橋體系下的橋商和水商納餉銷鹽,鹽餉銷支軍用,也用於地方河堤工程、虛糧代納等財政支出,體現了簡化地方政府財政稅收的條鞭特徵。清代潮橋體系下的橋商稱埠商,他們參與廣濟橋的維修、韓江的治理,既捐納朝廷軍需、河工,也捐修鹽義倉、書院,乃至把神的費用,體現了清代潮橋埠商的地域性特徵。19世紀以後,潮橋埠商屢陷欠齣困境,兩廣總督推動下的改革與省河改革相異,揭示出潮橋體系運作的獨立性。

English Abstract

This paper discusses the historical evolution of the salt trade system in Chaozhou in Ming and Qing. In the mid-fifteenth century, when the sale of salt from Guangdong Province across provincial boundaries was legalized, sea salt from Chaozhou began to be sold in the border regions of Fujian, Guangdong and Jiangxi. This led to the emergence of a salt trade system in the sixteenth century. The salt merchants of Chaozhou paid levies in exchange for the privilege to engage in the salt trade. These levies supported both military expenses and local river- works. Merchants' payments of a nominal grain tax was an expression of the late Ming simplification of local government finance. In the Qing, the salt merchants of Chaozhou made donations to support local infrastructure, for military expenses, public granaries, schools and ritual expenses. Beginning in the nineteenth century, the salt merchants of Chaozhou fell into fiscal difficulties because of the conflicting fiscal reforms implemented by senior provincial officials.

Topic Category 人文學 > 歷史學
人文學 > 人類學及族群研究