Title

「入湖權」的由來-明初鄱陽湖地區的湖池「閘辦」與漁戶「承課」

Translated Titles

The Origins of Fishing Rights on Boyang Lake: Registration for the Fishery Tax in the Early Ming

Authors

劉詩古(Shi-Gu Liu)

Key Words

明初 ; 鄱陽湖 ; 定居史 ; 入湖權 ; 閘辦 ; early Ming ; Boyaog Lake ; fishing rights ; registration for tax ; fishery tax

PublicationName

歷史人類學學刊

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

14卷1期(2016 / 04 / 01)

Page #

39 - 72

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

通過閱讀譜牒發現,現今生活在鄱陽湖周邊的漁民群體,並非原來生活在鄱陽平原的土著後裔,而是在不同時期陸續遷入的移民。現今留存下來的漁民家譜文本都試圖表達,他們的祖先來的比別人更早,並都有一個重要的祖先在明初「閘辦」了湖池,正式向官府登記納課。這套表達雖然存在細節上的矛盾,但各族關於祖先定居歷史的故事並非毫無意義,如族譜中都提及的祖先在明初「閘辦」湖池的故事就反映了明初湖區的重要制度變化。明初通過設立河泊所,國家力量開始介入到湖區的管理,如丈量湖池、編立靑冊、徵收漁課以及管理漁戶制度,從而基本奠定了明清乃至民國時期湖池、河港的産權佔有格局。然而,在明初河泊所初設時,漁戶對於「閘辦」和「納課」之事,並不主動積極,為了規避漁課,有些漁民選擇了逃亡。沿湖漁民村落人口的增長,使得入湖捕魚日益成為了一種競爭資源。在圍繞湖池水面的產權糾紛處理過程中,沿湖漁民通過祖先定居歷史的追溯,並結合明初王朝對湖池水域的「閘辦」徵課冊籍,用以證明祖先在明初就獲得了特定水域的「入湖權」。

English Abstract

According to their genealogies, the fishing families who today live around Boyang Lake are not descended from the original inhabitants of the Xianyang plains, but rather from subsequent immigrants to the region. Surviving genealogies of the fishing families all claim that it was their ancestors who were the first to move to the region, and all mention an important ancestor who registered for the payment of tax in early Ming times. Despite internal contradictions and inconsistencies, these accounts of how ancestors settled in the locale are not insignificant. Accounts in the genealogies of ancestors registering for payment of tax reflect a major change in the region in the early Ming. With the establishment in the early Ming of the Fishing Tax Office (hebosuo), state power first penetrated the region through measures including the census of the lake's territory and the population, the collection of the fishing tax and the administration of the fishing families. This established the basic structure of fishing rights on local waterways that persisted from Ming through Qing to the Republican period. Registration for tax in the early Ming was obligatory, and some fishing families chose to flee rather than comply. Rising population in the villages beside the lake increased competition over the fishery and this led to disputes over fishing rights. In the course of these disputes, fishing families made use of narratives about their ancestors' settlement in the region to match up with the Ming state's tax collection records, in order to demonstrate that their ancestors had secured permanent rights to fish on the lake.

Topic Category 人文學 > 歷史學
人文學 > 人類學及族群研究