Title

清代水域上的徵課體系、產權與湖區社會-以湖北大冶河涇湖册為中心

Translated Titles

The Tax Collection System, Property Ownership and Local Society on Lakes in the Qing Dynasty: A Study Using the Hejing Lake Tax Registers of Daye County, Hubei Province

Authors

徐斌(Bin Xu)

Key Words

湖泊 ; 制度 ; 魚課 ; 產權 ; lakes ; institutions ; fishing tax ; property rights

PublicationName

歷史人類學學刊

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

14卷1期(2016 / 04 / 01)

Page #

73 - 106

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

本文通過對數種《河涇湖冊》的解讀,試圖結合制度史與社會史的研究,對國家在水域社會的形成與發展過程中扮演了何種角色,以及水上活動人群又是如何理解乃至於利用國家制定的規則來構築自身世界等問題進行解答。可以看到,一方面,官府仍是以控制土地的方式來控制水域及流動的水上活動人群,由此造就了一個流動性相對減弱的湖主階層,定居於岸上的湖主既是水面的所有者,又是水域的「包稅人」,便利了國家的管理。當官府試圖進步通過湖主階層來間接控制其他水上活動人群時,統治效果並不明顯,仍不得不強化水塘等治安體系,利用暴力手段來維護統治秩序。另一方面,利用閘辦水域、承納魚課等方式,河泊所的漁戶成為了實際佔有水面的湖主,並且在種植農業發展等方面促進下「湖業」概念的內涵得以擴展。因而,本文的初衷是希望講述關於「水上」的歷史,實際上卻仍講了一個「土地」的故事

English Abstract

Through an analysis of several tax registers for lakes and rivers, this paper combines institutional and social history in exploring the role of the state in the emergence and development of lake-side society, as well as how lake- dwellers and fishermen understood and used state institutions to construct their own world. On the one hand, the state sought to use familiar methods of controlling land to impose control on lake waters and the mobile people living on the lakes. This led to the creation of a relatively immobile stratum with ownership rights over the lakes. These owners settled on the shores of the lakes and became responsible for the payment of taxes, facilitating state management. When the state tried to extend its control over the peoples on the lakes indirectly through this stratum, the results were not a success, so it had no choice but to strengthen the local security system, relying on force to maintain order. On the other hand, through their payment of taxes, the fishermen registered with the Fishing Tax Office became the actua1 proprietors of the lakes. Under pressure from agricultural development, the notion of "lake ownership" developed further. Thus although the initial intention for this paper was to tell a "waterborne history", it nonetheless cannot but recount a different version of the more familiar "land history".

Topic Category 人文學 > 歷史學
人文學 > 人類學及族群研究