Title

祖先與文字-清代以來湘潭族譜中靈官祭祀的正統化

Translated Titles

Protected by Ancestor and by Text: The Orthodox Status of the Lingguan Deity in Genealogies from Xiangtan County since the Qing

Authors

陳瑤(Yao CHEN)

Key Words

正統化 ; 靈官 ; 族譜 ; 祖先 ; 文字 ; Orthodoxy ; Lingguan deity ; Genealogy ; Ancestor ; Text

PublicationName

歷史人類學學刊

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

14卷2期(2016 / 10 / 01)

Page #

73 - 96

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

民間信仰體系中的神明正統化及正統形象的不斷維護,由於神明信仰來歷,官方和精英關注與否,鄉民文化程度的差異而途徑各殊,神明正統化及維護方式也對神明信仰的傳播範圍影響至深。清代以來湘潭地區的十多種族譜皆稱本族靈官神由始遷祖帶到湘潭,初期在宗族成員內部形成輪流祭祀靈官神的儀式,隨後靈官神的祭祀空間經歷了從家戶輪流祭祀到建立靈官廟祭祀的演變,主要祭祀儀式則一直為靈官案會。族譜撰寫者們稱祭祀靈官神相當於祭祀祖先,並在族譜文本中引經據典,塑造靈官信仰的正統性,通過強調靈官神的祭祀人群範圍控制在宗族之内以維持其正統形象。湘潭的靈官神與諸多官方敕封和賜額的神明在發展軌迹方面截然不同,集中體現了底層士人和普羅大眾對於未納入官方正祀體系和文化精英庇護範圍的神明信仰的認同、維護和限制,其中祖先與文字是神明正統化及維護其正統形象的重要方式,同時也限制了神明信仰的傳播和影響範圍。

English Abstract

This article examines the cult of the god Lingguan ("numinous official") in the Xiangtan region of Hunan in the Qing Some genealogies of local lineages claim the deity migrated together with their founding ancestor to Xiangtan. Before the establishment of localized lineages in the Qing, many communities worshipped the god in rotation, moving images of the god from household to household. In the early Qing period, many lineages began to build ancestral halls and perform rituals of ancestral sacrifice. At that time, Lingguan deities were settled in temples and were worshipped in the same way as ancestors. Local gentry and commoners defended the orthodox status of the Lingguan cult in their genealogies, manipulating classical texts to legitimize the relationship between deity and ancestor. This paper argues that this peculiar form of deity worship, although not recognized in the official sacrificial system, made it possible for the orthodoxy of the cult to be maintained through connections to ancestors and to texts. At the same time, the distinctive pattern also limited to some extent the possible expansion of the cult's influence.

Topic Category 人文學 > 歷史學
人文學 > 人類學及族群研究